Animated Film: Animation in motion pictures comprises all those cinematographic techniques which use the various media (e.g. cartoons, video, computer graphics) and other technologies on the basis of individual images ("multiplication" of rigid phases of movements by frame-by-frame photography). Austrian pioneers of animated film were: L. Tuszinsky, who produced numerous cartoons (incl. "Kalif Storch", 1922) in his own studio, F. Bresnikar, P. Eng and T. Zasche. On the initiative of the paintress M. Lassnig, the University of Applied Art has taught film animation as a distinct part of its curriculum of graphic art courses since 1982.
Literature#Animation in Oesterreich, in: Filmkunst 139, 1993.