Legal Counsel Requirement: In Austrian law, a party either absolutely must be represented by an attorney at court (absolute legal counsel requirement), or a lawyer has to intervene when a party wishes to be represented before the court (relative legal counsel requirement). The legal counsel requirement is applicable to appeal proceedings and to first-instance proceedings before the provincial and district courts if the value of the dispute exceeds ATS 30,000. In criminal trials, people are free to represent themselves (with some exceptions, e.g. in trials by jury, in appeal proceedings, etc.).
Further reading#W. A. Rechberger und D.-A. Simotta, Zivilprozessrecht, 31986.