Assassinations: August 9, 1832: Captain F. Reindl attempted to assassinate Archduke Ferdinand (later Emperor Ferdinand I); February 18, 1853: Johann Libenyis attempted to murder Emperor Franz Joseph I° in Vienna; September 10, 1898: Empress Elisabeth murdered in Geneva by the Italian anarchist Luigi Luccheni; February 11, 1913: Social Democratic workers' leader F. Schuhmeier assassinated by Paul Kunschak; June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir apparent to the throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg assassinated by the Bosnian student G. Princip in Sarajevo (triggered World War I); October 21, 1916: Minister President Count K. Stuergkh shot dead by F. Adler; February 17, 1923: Semperit (tyre company) works council member F. Birnecker shot dead by Monarchists (first victim to die in a political act of violence in the First Republic); June 1, 1924: attempted assassination of Federal Chancellor I. Seipel at Suedbahnhof train station in Vienna by Karl Jaworek; on March 10, 1925, the writer H. Bettauer was attacked by the National Socialist O. Rothstock and died on March 26; on July 25, 1934: Federal Chancellor E. Dollfuss assassinated in Federal Chancellery by O. Planetta during the attempted National Socialist putsch, after the National Socialist R. Drtil had already attempted to kill Dollfuss with a revolver on October 3, 1933; June 22, 1936: Philosophy professor M. Schlick murdered at the University of Vienna; May 1, 1981: Vienna city councillor H. Nittel murdered; November 19, 1984: Turkish diplomat Erner Ergun assassinated in Vienna; several series of letter bomb assassinations and attempts by perpetrators hostile to aliens since December 1993 on various persons who have been active in furthering the cause of integrating and accepting non-Austrians and ethnic minorities, including the former Mayor of Vienna, H. Zilk. In 1999 F. Fuchs was charged with having committed these crimes as well as the most violent assassination in the Second Republic involving the death of 4 Roma on February 4, 1995 in Oberwart.
Further reading#L. Spira (ed.), Attentate, die Oesterreich erschuetterten, 1981; G. Botz, Gewalt in der Politik, 1983.