University Studies Abroad, the opportunity for students as well as graduates to study or conduct research at renowned universities and research facilities abroad; at times restricted for religious or political reasons. Until the 20th century, the opportunity to study abroad was largely dependent on the students' personal financial means, now it is promoted and funded by the government, business sector and various other institutions. Study-abroad grants comprise grants for participation in university-level exchange programmes (e.g. Joint Study Programmes, Erasmus Programmes) and grants arising from cultural conventions and other international agreements. In general, the prerequisite for application is the successful completion of at least 4 (for some programmes only 2) semesters of study.