Austro-Marxism, a term describing the Austrian school of (Neo-) Marxism, which originated after 1900 and was mainly promoted by the theoreticians M. Adler, R. Hilferding and O. Bauer and formed the most extreme left wing of the Socialist International. Austro-Marxism was more a political and philosophical movement and often stood in opposition to the political practices of the Social Democratic Party, which co-operated more closely with the labour unions. The proponents of Austro-Marxism defended the standpoint of the proletarian revolution and wanted to apply Marx's ideas to all political and economic spheres. The development of Austro-Marxism was connected to the 1st volume of "Blaetter zur Theorie und Politik des wissenschaftlichen Sozialismus" (On the theory and politics of scientific socialism) which appeared in 1904, the "Marxstudien" (Marx studies) published by M. Adler und R. Hilferding and the monthly periodical "Der Kampf" (from 1907 on). After 1917 (Russian Revolution) Austro-Marxism tried to mediate between the Second (Socialist) and Third (Communist) International, but later distanced itself from Bolshevism in the light of experiences in the Soviet Union. In the Linz Programme drawn up by O. Bauer, the left and right wings of Austrian Social Democrats found common ground in their rejection of Bolshevism. Austro-Marxism ceased to exist after being banned from 1934 to 1945).
Further reading#A. Pfabigan, Illusion und Wirklichkeit, 1989; Zwischen Austro-Marxismus und Katholizismus, Festschrift for N. Leser, 1993.