Avant-garde Film: Film genre not orientated on commercial success but using cinematographic instruments and techniques that defy tradition, and frequently devoted to topics that are felt to be either "offensive and scandalous" or "not fit for artistic treatment". Avant-garde film is characterised by open experimentation rather than formal or narrative coherence. In Austria, avant-garde film makers initially relied on literary models with which to experiment, such as "Der Rabe" (The Raven) von K. Steinwendner (C. Stenvert) inspired by E. A. Poe 1951); P. Kubelka ("Mosaik im Vertrauen" (Mosaic in confidence) 1954/55) and F. Radax pursued a different course with a style of montages with little action ("Sonne halt!" (Sun stop!) 1962); further developments, particularly in the field of Video Film ( M. Adrian, V. Export, K. Kren, E. Schmidt Jr. and P. Weibel et al.) shows close links with contemporary Austrian literature and film. The "Austrian Filmmakers Cooperative" was founded in 1968 as the interest group of independent Austrian film makers.
Literature#H. Scheugl and E. Schmidt Jr., Eine Subgeschichte des Films, 2 vols., 1974.