Baden, Lower Austria, town in the district of Baden, alt. 228 m, pop. 23,488, area 26.89 km2, medicinal bath with sulphur springs situated on the thermal line (fault line with thermal springs between the Northern Limestone Alps and the Vienna Basin) at the Vienna Basin end of the Schwechat Valley. District Commission, District Court, district office of the Chamber of Agriculture, office of the federal construction authorities, regional office of the Lower Austrian Board of Agriculture, Inland Revenue Office, Employment Services, Office of Weights, Measures and Surveying, garrison, Martinek barracks, office of the Chamber of Labour, office of the Economic Chamber, hydropathic residence with thermal indoor pool (1969-1974), mineral water pool (1847, A. v. Sicardsburg and E. van der Nuell), thermal outdoor pool with sandy beach (1926), drinking hall (1928), spa park, numerous hydropathic and convalescent homes, hospital, town theatre (1908-1910), Emperor Franz Joseph museum (1905, handicrafts, folk art), museum of the town of Baden (Rollett museum, town archives 1905), puppeteering and toys museum, Summer Arena (1906, operetta festivals), congress centre (converted from a building that was a hydropathic centre from 1884 to 1886, turned into a congress centre 1966-1969), casino run by Casinos Austria AG (housed in the former hydropathic centre 1934-1944 and in the former drinking hall 1969-1991, both converted into one large gambling house in 1995). 2 Bundesgymnasium and 1 Bundesrealgymnasium secondary schools, commercial school, fashion school, commercial academy, teacher training college, training institution for residential social workers, institute for advanced training in dentistry, vocational schools, schools for painters, decorators and bakers, adult education centre. Trotting course, sports and multipurpose hall (1978-1980). In 1991 circa 82 % of the town´s 9,399 workforce were employed in service industries, particularly in tourism (536,922 overnight stays); hotel business, trading industries, personal, social and public services (especially hospitals and specialised sanatoria), finance and credit businesses, no major production firms, viticulture (bottled wine production).
Roman settlement "Aquae", 869 first documented mention of a Carolingian palatinate "palatium ad Padun", castle documented 1125, town status in 1480, destroyed several times by Turks and Magyars, development as a Biedermeier spa owing to thermal springs and because Emperor Franz I had his summer residence in Baden (1811-34); numerous writers and composers spent part of their working life in the town (W. A. Mozart, L. v. Beethoven, F. Schubert, J. Strauss the Elder, J. Lanner, F. Grillparzer, J. Schreyvogel, I. F. Castelli, F. Dingelstedt, F. Raimund), town flourished in the early 19th century (great number of Classicistic buildings are preserved, many of them built by J. Kornhaeusel).
Baden has many old religious buildings: town parish church of St. Stephen (1477, late Gothic, oldest parts Romanesque) with altar-piece by P. Troger, neo-Gothic interior; late Gothic church of St. Helena with "potter´s altar" (a gift from the potters´ guild, early 16th century), old and new Frauenkirche (churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary), former Augustinian hermitage (13th century), Holy Trinity column, chapels of St. Anna (16th -17th centuries) and St. Anthony (1708), baths: Johannesbad (19th century), Theresienbad (1758), Josefsbad (1804), Leopoldsbad (1812), Frauen- and Karolinenbad (1821-1823) and Franzensbad (1827), town hall (1812-1815), exhibitions in the Frauenbad, Beethoven house, Beethoven festival days, summer theatre festival, rose garden.
Nearby destinations: ruins Rauhenstein (Romanesque) and Rauheneck (12th century) at the Vienna Basin end of Helenental Valley, Weikersdorf Castle (documented 1233, with remains of a Romanesque keep), Leesdorf Castle (documented 1114, an earlier moated castle) and Braiten Castle (1809), to the west of Baden Koenigshoehle cave ( Baden Culture).
Literature#Oesterr. Staedtebuch, vol. IV, part 1, Die Staedte Niederoesterreichs, 1988.