Public Authorities, Structure of, The Federal Constitution provides for two types of executive authority: Jurisdiction and Administration of Justice, and administration in general. Accordingly, there are administrative and court authorities ( Public Authority ). The main difference is that administrative authorities are to a great extent bound by instructions whereas the administration of justice is carried out by independent organs, the judges. While justice is a federal matter, the administration is shared by federal and provincial authorities and is partly within the discretion of what are called decentralised public corporations (esp. municipalities, chambers).
The implementation of administrative acts is entrusted to several instances. The supreme organs are the Federal President, the Federal Government and the Federal Ministries. Lower instances are either special federal administration authorities (direct federal administration, e.g. Federal Office of Security, Office of Finance), or, what is more often the case, the affairs of the federal administration are carried out by provincial authorities (indirect federal administration, e.g. Landeshauptmann and subordinate provincial authorities, i.e. in most cases the District Commissioner).
In each province the supreme organ of administration is the Provincial Government headed by the Landeshauptmann. The Provincial Governments are elected by the Landtag. They are the superior instance to the Bezirkshauptmannschaft, which are headed by the District Commissioners.
Affairs both of the federal and the provincial administration are partly carried out by the municipal authorities (either in a discretionary capacity within their own jurisdiction or subject to instruction within what is called delegated jurisdiction). The municipalities are headed by a Mayor . Chartered Cities and Towns have the legal status of municipality and at the same time a District Commission.