Schools for the Disabled: In Austria, formal education for children whose education proves difficult for physical, mental or psychological reasons, has been institutionalised step by step since the Age of Enlightenment. From the late 18th century, children with sight, speech or hearing handicaps were given access to knowledge and working techniques, so they would be able to enter working life ( Schools for the Blind , Schools for the Deaf and Dumb ). In the second half of the 19th century, the observance of compulsory education was strictly surveyed. Educationally challenged children were frequently unable to follow standard instruction and were therefore excluded. Separate institutions were established to enable such children to complete school education. ( Sonderschulen, Special Needs Children, Education of ). At present, efforts are made to integrate disabled children into the standard school system in order to reduce the negative effects of segregation, especially marginalisation. Since 1993, disabled and non-disabled children may be taught together under certain conditions.