Public Service Classes ("Dienstzweige"): pursuant to the 1979 Public Service Act ("Dienstrechtsgesetz"), established (permanent) civil servants are divided into classes according to their training and duties (class A: "hoeherer Dienst" (high-grade service), B: "gehobener Dienst" (upper-grade service), C: "Fachdienst" (specialist service), D: "mittlerer Dienst" (medium-grade service), E: "Hilfsdienst" (clerical and auxiliary service)). The Act also provides for the relevant official titles. Judges are exempt from such classification. Teaching personnel are divided into the following career classes:
university teachers and teachers at Paedagogische Akademien,
L1: teachers with a university degree at general and vocational secondary schools
L2: teachers at primary and secondary schools
L3: teachers without a secondary school-leaving certificate.