Turning: The technique of turning (turned work) was already known in ancient Egypt and was brought to Europe by the Romans. In Germany, turnery can be traced back to the 7th century; a chair with turned forms has been preserved from the 9th century. The craft of turning achieved a high level of perfection at the beginning of the 17th century. Frames of chairs, benches and beds as well as spinning wheels and boxes were produced to high artistic standards. Fine examples are rosaries, toys, and "Kroesenbuechsen" (for example, from Viechtau, Upper Austria), given to children by their godparents to hold presents commemorating their christening. Spigots ("Piepen") for barrels containing cider, wine, or beer were economically important. Today the turners are represented as a trade in the Austrian Economic Chamber.
Literature#L. Schmidt, Volkskunst in Oesterreich, 1966; H. Gruenn, Fassbinder, Fassboden, Handwerk und Kunst, 1968.