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Einjaehrig-Freiwillige (volunteers serving one year), also called "Einjaehrige"; type of army service introduced in 1868. It included all persons liable for military service who could establish proof of having their leaving certificates from a secondary school or (from 1914) who on grounds of their occupation and social rank could prove to have the required educational background. Einjaehrig-Freiwillige were made reserve officers after one year of military service and after having completed a special training. They were soon regarded as fully adequate substitutes for officers and attended military exercises (6-8 weeks) for further training every year. The Military Service Act under the 1st Republic did not include this institution at first; however, in 1935 it was re-introduced, and reorganised in 1964 (until then the army of the 2nd Republic had "Maturantenkompanien", i.e. companies consisting of persons with secondary-level education). The prerequisites for attaining the rank of "cadet sergeant" or "second lieutenant" are military exercises lasting several weeks and relevant examinations within a period of 4 years after starting the Einjaehrig-Freiwillige training. The highest rank a reserve officer can attain is "colonel" and, in isolated cases, "brigadier".