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Eisheilige (Ice Saints, also called: "Icemen", "gestrenge Herren" - stern rulers), popular name for the Saints Mamertus, Pancratius, Servatius and Boniface (bishops and martyrs from the 4th and 5th  centuries). On their feast days (May 11-14) and the following days ("kalte Sopherl"- cold Sophie, May 15) spells of cold weather are often expected. "Reifheizen" was a method used by wine growers to protect their fruits from these May frosts; they lighted damp wood and leaves in their vineyards to produce a thick smoke which covered the blossoms and shoots and protected them from the low temperatures. The Ice Saints´ days are considered critical days for predicting the weather.