Welfare: The Austrian welfare system began during the rule of Joseph II with the founding of the "Pfarr-Armeninstitution", in 1783. His measures remained in effect until around 1870. The public welfare system began in 1863 with the Law governing the Right of Residence, which stipulated that the municipalities were required to support those in need. Municipalities which could not afford a home for the aged, procured accomodation and care for old and indigent residents in various families who took turns in performing social duties ("Einlegesystem"). By 1893 Lower Austria was the only province to have abolished the Einlegesystem, establishing district old-age homes instead. In 1938 the German welfare law was introduced in Austria, making district and provincial welfare offices responsible for the public welfare system. This system remained in force until 1948, when public assistance became a matter for the individual provinces.
At the beginning of the 1970s the Austrian social security law was radically changed. The provinces passed new public assistance legislation ( Social Assistance). In addition to general welfare provisions in the new legislation, there are special regulations for certain groups, such as the youth welfare law on public assistance to mothers, infants and young persons or special provincial legislation for handicapped and blind persons.