Independent theatre troupes (German: freie Gruppen); theatre troupes not performing on one permanent stage, are organised in the form of associations for one or more productions and offer their performances as an alternative to established theatres. The trend of forming these groups stems partially from the tradition established by the Vienna movement known as "actionism" in the fifties, and partially from the acting troupes founded by student groups and cafe theatres after the student movement in 1968. The free theatre troupes deal with artistic as well political issues.
Literature#D. Hirschbuechler, Zur Situation der freien Gruppen in Vienna, doctoral thesis, Vienna 1991.