Galicia (Poland): Until 1918 the region north of the Carpathian Mountains was a crown land of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. G. was the largest province of the western half of the Empire, with an area of 78,492 km2 and a population of 7.3 millions (1910; 54.75 % Polish; 42.2 % Ruthenians; 2.91 % Germans). Main livelihoods: agriculture and forestry; salt mining and petroleum extraction were also important.
When Poland was first partitioned in 1772, the region was annexed by Austria and made a distinct political unit ("Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria"). The Austrian administration organised and promoted the settling of many German-speaking people, which resulted in modernisation of the region: foundation of Lemberg University (now Lvív), 1784; primary schools, religious tolerance. After the 3rd partition of Poland, G. saw a great expansion 1795-1809; in 1846 the Republic of Cracow was added. After 1867 the Polish living in the western half of the Empire gained significant influence and were granted autonomy at the expense of the Ukrainians. Large parts of the Jewish population (11 % of the total population) started to emigrate to Vienna. Numerous units of the Imperial Army were permanently stationed in G. (1900: 70,800 people engaged in military service). During World War I G. was an important theatre of operations; in 1914 large portions of the region were conquered by the Russian Army, but came under Austrian rule again in 1915. In 1918 G. was ceded to the new Polish State.
Literature#K. H. Mack (ed.), Galizien um die Jahrhundertwende, 1990.