Gesellenbetreuung: From the 16th century, journeymen were required to work under different masters and at different locations if they wanted to become masters themselves and therefore wandered from place to place. During the 18th century journeymen were issued special passports (Kundschaften) that guaranteed them accommodation in lodging houses owned by the guilds. The beginning of the 19th century (beginning of industrialisation) marked the end of the traditional travels of journeymen. After that time, denominational journeymen´s associations were formed and aimed at providing a Christian environment, training and education as well as places where journeymen could specialise. In Austria, Father A. Kolping ("Kolpinghaeuser") was a pioneer in this field, and many such associations were founded in accordance with his principles (1852 in Vienna, 1855 in the diocese of St. Poelten), the last one in 1927.