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Chad: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
CapitalN'Djamena N
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Quest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Constitutionseveral previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2010)
Executive branchchief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Kalzeube Pahimi DEUBET (since 21 November 2013)
cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji MADOU 7.8%
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
Independence11 August 1960 (from France)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 15 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges term NA
subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil and customary law
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayIndependence Day, 11 August (1960)
Political pressure groups and leadersrebel groups
Political parties and leadersAlliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR (Ngarledjy YORONGAR)
National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP (Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE)
National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR (Saleh KEBZABO)
Party for Liberty and Development or PLD (Jean-Baptiste LAOKOLE)
Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS (Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman)
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP (Lol Mahamat CHOUA)
Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD (Sande NGARYIMBE)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typerepublic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat NASSER (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 462-4009
FAX: (1) (202) 265-1937
National anthemname: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
note: adopted 1960
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)goat (north); lion (south)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador James KNIGHT (since 13 March 2013)
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: (235) 2251-70-09
FAX: (235) 2251-56-54