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Comoros: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Union of the Comoros
conventional short form: Comoros
local long form: Udzima wa Komori (Comorian); Union des Comores (French); Jumhuriyat al Qamar al Muttahidah (Arabic)
local short form: Komori (Comorian); Comores (French); Juzur al Qamar (Arabic)
CapitalMoroni Moroni
geographic coordinates: 11 42 S, 43 14 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions3 islands and 4 municipalities*; Anjouan (Ndzuwani), Domoni*, Fomboni*, Grande Comore (N'gazidja), Moheli (Mwali), Moroni*, Moutsamoudou*
Constitutionprevious 1996; latest ratified 23 December 2001; amended 2009 and 2014 (2014)
Executive branchchief of state: President Ikililou DHOININE (since 26 May 2011)
head of government: President Ikililou DHOININE (since 26 May 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every four years among the elected presidents from the three main islands in the Union; election last held on 7 November and 26 December 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: Ikililou DHOININE elected president; percent of vote - Ikililou DHOININE 61.1%, Mohamed Said FAZUL 32.7%, Abdou DJABIR 6.2%
Flag descriptionfour equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), white, red, and blue, with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist; centered within the triangle is a white crescent with the convex side facing the hoist and four white, five-pointed stars placed vertically in a line between the points of the crescent; the horizontal bands and the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, N'gazidja, Ndzuwani, and Mahore (Mayotte - department of France, but claimed by Comoros)
note: the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Independence6 July 1975 (from France)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 7 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 8 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected - 2 by the president of the Union, 2 by the Assembly of the Union, and 1 each by the 3 island councils; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court members appointed - 1 by the president, 1 each by the 3 vice presidents, 1 by the Assembly, and 1 each by the island executives; all members serve 6-year renewable terms
subordinate courts: Court of Appeals (in Moroni); Tribunal de premiere; island village (community) courts; religious courts
Legal systemmixed legal system of Islamic religious law, the French civil code of 1975, and customary law
Legislative branchunicameral Assembly of the Union (33 seats; 15 deputies are selected by the individual islands' local assemblies and 18 by universal suffrage to serve for five years);
elections: last held on 6 and 20 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - pro-union coalition 19, autonomous coalition 4, independents 1; note - 9 additional seats are filled by deputies from local island assemblies
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AMF, AOSIS, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National holidayIndependence Day, 6 July (1975)
Political pressure groups and leadersother: environmentalists
Political parties and leadersCamp of the Autonomous Islands or CdIA (a coalition of parties organized by the islands' presidents in opposition to the Union President)
Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros or CRC (AZALI Assowmani)
Front National pour la Justice or FNJ (Ahmed RACHID) (Islamic party in opposition)
Mouvement pour la Democratie et le Progress or MDP-NGDC (Abbas DJOUSSOUF)
Parti Comorien pour la Democratie et le Progress or PCDP (Ali MROUDJAE)
Rassemblement National pour le Development or RND (Omar TAMOU, Abdoulhamid AFFRAITANE)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typerepublic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Roubani KAAMBI (since 6 September 2012); note - also serves as Permanent Representative to the UN
chancery: Mission to the US, 866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 418, New York, NY 10017
telephone: (1) (212) 750-1637
FAX: (1) (212) 750-1657
National anthemname: "Udzima wa ya Masiwa" (The Union of the Great Islands)
lyrics/music: Said Hachim SIDI ABDEREMANE/Said Hachim SIDI ABDEREMANE and Kamildine ABDALLAH
note: adopted 1978
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)four stars and crescent
Diplomatic representation from the USthe US does not have an embassy in Comoros; the ambassador to Madagascar is accredited to Comoros