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Egypt: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
CapitalCairo Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Constitutionseveral previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referenfum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014 (2014)
Executive branchChief of state: President Abdel Fattah al-SISI (since 8 June 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Ibrahim MEHLAB (since 1 March 2014)
cabinet: interim cabinet sworn in 1 March 2014
elections: last presidential election held on 26-28 May 2014 (next to be held in May 2018)
election results: percent of vote - Abdel Fattah al-SISI 96.6%, Hamdeen SABAHI 3.4%
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
Independence28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and 550 judges organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges); Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 justices); Supreme Administrative Court - the highest court of the State Council (consists of the court president and organized in circuits with cases heard by panels of 5 judges)
judge selection and term of office: under the 2014 constitution, all judges and justices selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the president of the Republic; tenure NA
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
Legal systemmixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil and penal law, Islamic religious law, and vestiges of colonial-era laws; judicial review of the constitutionality of laws by the Supreme Constitutional Court
Legislative branchnote: the previous bicameral legislature was dissolved in July 2013 and under the 2014 constitution was changed to the unicameral House of Representatives (minimum of 450 seats with up to 5 percent appointed by the president; members to serve 5-year terms); the process for elected members as stated in Article 102 of the 2014 constitution may be majoritarian, proportional list, or a mixed system; the previous bicameral parliament consisted of the Shura Council (at least 150 seats with up to one-tenth of body appointed by the president to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives(at least 350 seats); members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections (for new House of Representatives): unscheduled but expected in mid- to late-2014
election results (for previous legislature): Advisory Council (held 29 January and 14 February 2012) - percent of vote by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 45%, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 28.6%, New Wafd Party 8.5%, Egyptian Bloc 5.4%, other 12.5%; seats by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 105, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 45, New Wafd Party 14, Egyptian Bloc 8, other 4, independents 4, presidential appointees 90; People's Assembly (held in three stages 28 November 2011 to 11 January 2012) - percent of vote by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 37.5%, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 27.8%, New Wafd Party 9.2%, Egyptian Bloc 8.9%, Al-Wasat Party 3.7%, The Revolution Continues Alliance 2.8%, Reform and Development Party 2.2%, National Party of Egypt 1.6%, Freedom Party 1.9%, Egyptian Citizen Party 0.9%, other 3.5%; seats by party - Democratic Alliance of Egypt 235, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 123, New Wafd Party 38, Egyptian Bloc 35, Al-Wasat 10, Reform and Development Party 9, The Revolution Continues Alliance 8, National Party of Egypt 5, Egyptian Citizen Party 4, Freedom Party 4, independents 21, other 6, SCAF appointees 10
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CD, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayNational Day, 23 July (1952)
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Political parties and leadersAl-Asala (Ehab SHIHA)
Al-Nour (Yunis MAKHYUN)
Al-Wasat Party (Abou Elela MADY)
Al-Watan (Imad Abd al-GHAFUR)
Building and Development Party or BDP (Nasr Abdul-SALAM)
Dustour (Constitution) Party (Hala SHUKRALLAH)
Egyptian Current Party
Egypt of Freedom Party (Amr HAMZAWY)
El Tagamu'u Party (Sayed Abdel AAL)
Freedom and Justice Party (Muhammad Saad al-KATATNI)
Free Egyptians Party (Ahmad SAID)
New Wafd Party (Sayed al-BADADWI)
Reform and Development Party (Muhammad Anwar al-SADAT)
Strong Egypt Party (Abdel Aboul FOTOUH)
The Conference Party (Ambassador Mohamed ORABI)
The Egyptian Social Democratic Party (Mohamed Aboul GHAR)
The Popular Current Party (Hamdeen SABAHI)
The Popular Socialist Alliance Party (Abdel Ghafar SHOUKR)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Government typerepublic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed M. TAWFIK (since 7 September 2012)
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 895-5400
FAX: (1) (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
National anthemname: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH
note: adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)golden eagle
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marc J. SIEVERS (since 21 January 2014)
embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone: (20) (2) 2797-3300
FAX: (20) (2) 2797-3200