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Ethiopia: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
CapitalAddis Ababa Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2013)
Executive branchchief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers ASTER Mamo, DEBRETSION Gebre-Michael, DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen; note - prior to his approval as prime minister, HAILEMARIAM had been acting prime minister due to the death of former Prime Minister MELES
cabinet: Council of Ministers - ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections: president elected by both chambers of Parliament for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu elected president by acclamation
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996
Independenceoldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or Supreme Imperial Court (consists of 11 judges)
note - the Federal Supreme Court has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts
Legal systemcivil law system
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 499, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, HNL 1, FORUM 1, APDO 1, independent 1
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National holidayNational Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Political pressure groups and leadersEthiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF (DAOUD Ibsa)
Political parties and leadersAfar National Democratic Party or ANDP (Mohammed KEDIR)
All Ethiopian Unity Organization or AEUO (Hailu SHAWEL)
Arena Tigray (GEBRU Asrat)
Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO (Abdulkader MOHAMMED)
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP (Mulualem BESSE)
Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP (AYELE Chamiso)
Ethiopian Democratic Party or EDP (MUSHE Semu)
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections) (Dr. Moga FRISSA)
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; and Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
Gurage Peoples Democratic Front (GIRMA Bogale)
Harari National League or HNL (YASIN Husein)
Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM
Oromo People's Congress or OPC (IMERERA Gudina)
Somali Democratic Alliance Forces or SODAF (BUH Hussien)
Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP (Abdulfetah Sheck ABDULAHI)
South Ethiopian People's Democratic Union or SEPDU (TILAHUN Endeshaw)
United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF (BEYENE Petros)
Unity for Democracy and Justice or UDJ (Dr. NEGASSO Gidada)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typefederal republic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru (since 6 January 2011)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 364-1200
FAX: (1) (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
National anthemname: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)Abyssinian lion
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Marie HASLACH (since 14 August 2013)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401