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Rwanda: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda
former: Ruanda, German East Africa
CapitalKigali Kigali
geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 03 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
Constitutionseveral previous; latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003; amended several times, last in 2010 (2013)
Executive branchchief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Pierre Damien HABUMUREMYI (since 7 October 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 August 2010 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: Paul KAGAME re-elected president; Paul KAGAME 93.1%, Jean NTAWUKURIRYAYO 5.1%, Prosper HIGIRO 1.4%, Alvera MUKABARAMBA 0.4%
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band; blue represents happiness and peace, yellow economic development and mineral wealth, green hope of prosperity and natural resources; the sun symbolizes unity, as well as enlightenment and transparency from ignorance
Independence1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 12 judges; normally organized into 3-judge benches)
note - the Gacaca Court was established in 2001 by the National Unity Government to try cases of genocide against the Tutsis
judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president of the republic, after consultation with the Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary (a 14-member body of judges, other judicial officials, and legal professionals), and approved by the Senate; court president and vice president appointed for 8-year nonrenewable terms; tenure of other judges NA
subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; Gacaca and military specialized courts
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law, based on German and Belgian models, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning; members to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - NA; Chamber of Deputies - last held on 15 September 2008 (next to be held on 16-18 September 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPF 78.8%, PSD 13.1%, PL 7.5%; seats by party - RPF 42, PSD 7, PL 4, additional 27 members indirectly elected
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 July (1962)
Political pressure groups and leadersIBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
Political parties and leadersCentrist Democratic Party or PDC (Agnes MUKABARANGA)
Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR (Gonzague RWIGEMA)
Democratic Republican Movement or MDR (Celestin KABANDA) (officially banned)
Islamic Democratic Party or PDI (Musa Fazil HARERIMANA)
Liberal Party or PL (Protais MITALI)
Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned)
Party for Progress and Concord or PPC (Alvera MUKABARAMBA)
Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF (Paul KAGAME)
Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR (Jean Baptist RUCIBIGANGO)
Social Democratic Party or PSD (Vincent BIRUTA)
Socialist Party-Imberakuri or PS-Imberakuri (Christine MUKABUNANI)
Solidarity and Prosperity Party or PSP (Pheobe KANYANGE)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typerepublic; presidential, multiparty system
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Mathilde MUKANTABANA (since 5 July 2013)
chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (1) (202) 232-2882
FAX: (1) (202) 232-4544
National anthemname: "Rwanda nziza" (Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country)
lyrics/music: Faustin MURIGO/Jean-Bosco HASHAKAIMANA
note: adopted 2001
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Donald W. KORAN (since 8 August 2011)
embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone: (250) 596-400
FAX: (250) 596-591