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Somalia: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalkaa Soomaaliya
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
CapitalMogadishu Mogadishu
geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Constitutionprevious 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) (2012)
Executive branchchief of state: resident HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (since 10 September 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister ABDIWELLI Sheikh Ahmed (since 21 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Ridwan HIRSI Mohamed (since 17 January 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the National Parliament; note - new cabinet sworn in 22 January 2014
elections: president elected by the National Parliament; election last held 10 September 2012 (next to be held NA)
election results: HASSAN SHEIKH Mahamud elected president; National Parliament vote - HASSAN SHEIKH Mahamud 190, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed 79; the prime minister is chosen by the president and confirmed by the National Parliament
Flag descriptionlight blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center; the blue field was originally influenced by the flag of the UN, but today is said to denote the sky and the neighboring Indian Ocean; the five points of the star represent the five regions in the horn of Africa that are inhabited by Somali people: the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland (which together make up Somalia), Djibouti, Ogaden (Ethiopia), and the North East Province (Kenya)
Independence1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland that became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland that became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges including the chief judge and deputy chief judge)
note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter (TNC), a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and an Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or sharia Islamic law
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: federal- and federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia (Islamic) courts
Legal systemmixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
Legislative branchbicameral National Parliament consisting of the House of the People of the Federal Parliament (275 seats, elected by Somali citizens) and the Upper House of the Federal Parliament (54 seats, elected by people of the federal member states)
note: the inaugural House of the People in September 2012 was appointed by clan elders; as of December 2013, the Upper House has not been formed
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
National holidayFoundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
Political pressure groups and leadersother: numerous clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the transitional government
Political parties and leadersnone
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typein the process of building a federal parliamentary republic
Government - noteregional and local governing bodies continue to exist and control various areas of the country, including the self-declared Republic of Somaliland in northwestern Somalia and the semi-autonomous state of Puntland in northeastern Somalia
Diplomatic representation in the USSomalia does not have an embassy in the US (ceased operations on 8 May 1991); note - the Somali Government is represented in the US through its Permanent Mission to the UN
National anthemname: "Qolobaa Calankeed" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE
note: adopted 2012; written in 1959
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)leopard
Diplomatic representation from the USthe US does not have an embassy in Somalia; US interests are represented by the US Special Representative for Somalia, Ambassador James P. MCANULTY, operating out of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya at United Nations Avenue, Nairobi; mailing address: Unit 64100, Nairobi; APO AE 09831; telephone: (254) (20) 363-6000; FAX (254) (20) 363-6157