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Sudan: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
CapitalKhartoum Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions17 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya (Northern), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Kassala, Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Sharq Darfur (Eastern Darfur), Shimal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sinnar, Wasat Darfur (Central Darfur)
Constitutionprevious 1998; latest (interim) adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a process for drafting a new constitution (2013)
Executive branchchief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (both since 3 December 2013) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMAN (both since 9 December 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections: election on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR re-elected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 68.2%, Yasir ARMAN 21.7%, Abdullah Deng NHIAL 3.9%, others 6.2%
note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents Sudan itself (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity
Independence1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges; court includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: National Court of Appeals; other national courts (not specified in the 2005 Interim National Constitution as to national or local authority); township and rural (peoples') courts
Legal systemmixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law
Legislative branchbicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; 60% from geographic constituencies, 25% from a women's list, and 15% from party lists; members to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, SPLM 99, PCP 4, DUP 4, UFP 3, URDP 2, DUPO 2, SPLM-DC 2, other 7, vacant 4; composition of National Assembly following South Sudan's independence - seats by party - NCP 317, SPLM 8, PCP 4, DUP 4, UFP 3, URDP 2, DUPO 1, UP 1, UNP 1, UCLP 1, MB 1, independent 3, vacant 8
note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted
International organization participationABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1956)
Political pressure groups and leadersSudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) (Malik AGAR)
Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) (Malik AGAR)
National Consensus Front (NCF) (Farouq ABU ISSA)
Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM (Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM), the Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW (Abdel Wahid NUR) (various factional leaders), Sudan Liberation or SLM-MM /(Minni Arkou MINAWI)
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Unionist Party or DUP (Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI)
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP (Umar Hassan al-BASHIR)
National Umma Party or UP (Siddiq al-MAHDI)
Popular Congress Party or PCP (Hassan al-TURABI)
Reform Now Party or RNP (Dr. Ghazi Salah ADDEEN)
Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) (Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB)
Sudanese Congress Party (Ibrahim Al Shiek ABDULRAHMAN)
Unionist Movement Party or UMP (Nagla AL-AZHARI)
Suffrage17 years of age; universal
Government typefederal republic ruled by the National Congress Party (NCP), which seized power by military coup in 1989; the CPA-mandated Government of National Unity, which between 2005 and 2011 provided a percentage of leadership posts to the southern Sudan-based Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), was disbanded following the secession of South Sudan
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Elhafiz Eisa Abdulla ADAM
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 338-8565
FAX: (1) (202) 667-2406
National anthemname: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; the song originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008
National symbol(s)secretary bird
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission Christopher ROWAN (since December 2012)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: (249) (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: (249) (183) 774-137