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Zimbabwe: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
CapitalHarare Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Constitutionprevious 1979; latest approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013 (2013)
Executive branchchief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Joice MUJURU (since 6 December 2004)
head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987) note - according to the new constitution, following the 31 July 2013 presidential elections the position of Prime Minister was abolished
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly
elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); elections last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE 2.7% other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticised by election monitors and international bodies; both the AU and the SADC endoresed the results of the election with some concerns
Flag descriptionseven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people
Independence18 April 1980 (from the UK)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65, but can elect to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court, regional magistrate courts, and special courts
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (80 seats - 60 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term, 18 traditional chiefs elected by the Council of Chiefs and 2 seats reserved for people with disabilities) and a House of Assembly (270 seats - members elected by popular vote for five-year terms and 60 seats reserved for women who are identified by their parties and nominated by proportional representation)
elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37 MD-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 197, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 1
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayIndependence Day, 18 April (1980)
Political pressure groups and leadersCrisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
National Constitutional Assembly or NCA (Lovemore MADHUKU)
Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA (Jenni WILLIAMS)
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU (Wellington CHIBEBE)
Political parties and leadersAfrican National Party or ANP (Egypt DZINEMUNHENZVA)
Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T (Morgan TSVANGIRAI)
Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N (Welshman NCUBE)
Peace Action is Freedom for All or PAFA
United Parties (Abel MUZOREWA)
United People's Party or UPP (Daniel SHUMBA)
Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga (Wilson KUMBULA)
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF (Robert Gabriel MUGABE)
Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU (Dumiso DABENGWA)
Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance or ZIYA
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Government typeparliamentary democracy
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard CHIBUWE (since April 2014)
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: (1) (202) 332-7100
FAX: (1) (202) 483-9326
National anthemname: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe" (Northern Ndebele language) "Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe" (Shona) (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA
note: adopted 1994
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador David Bruce WHARTON (since 15 November 2012)
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: (263) (4) 250-593 through 250-594
FAX: (263) (4) 796-488, or 722-618