unbekannter Gast

Canada: Economy#

As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian merchandise exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in 2010-13 and plans to balance the budget by 2015. In addition, the country's petroleum sector is rapidly expanding, because Alberta's oil sands significantly boosted Canada's proven oil reserves. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.

Economic Facts#

GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.518 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.494 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.469 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate1.6% (2013 est.)
1.7% (2012 est.)
2.5% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$43,100 (2013 est.)
$42,900 (2012 est.)
$42,700 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition, by sector of originagriculture: 1.7%
industry: 28.4%
services: 69.9% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line9.4%
note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 2%
manufacturing: 13%
construction: 6%
services: 76%
other: 3% (2006 est.)
Exports - commoditiesmotor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partnersUS 74.5%, China 4.3%, UK 4.1% (2012)
Agriculture - productswheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products
Budgetrevenues: $687.8 billion
expenditures: $740.8 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partnersUS 50.6%, China 11%, Mexico 5.5% (2012)
Exchange ratesCanadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -
1.03 (2013 est.)
0.9992 (2012 est.)
1.0302 (2010 est.)
1.1431 (2009)
1.0364 (2008)
Exports$458.7 billion (2013 est.)
$462.9 billion (2012 est.)
Debt - external$1.331 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.191 trillion (31 December 2011)
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
Imports$471 billion (2013 est.)
$474.9 billion (2012 est.)
Industrial production growth rate1.4% (2013 est.)
Industriestransportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas
Inflation rate (consumer prices)1% (2013 est.)
1.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force19.08 million (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate7.1% (2013 est.)
7.3% (2012 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.1 (2005)
31.5 (1994)
Public debt86.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
85.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level
Current account balance-$59.5 billion (2013 est.)
-$62.27 billion (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$68.55 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$65.82 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$1.825 trillion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$1.038 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$992.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$1.047 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$991.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$2.016 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.907 trillion (31 December 2011)
$2.16 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate1% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate3% (31 December 2013 est.)
3% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$3.126 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.091 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$699.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$648.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.539 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.488 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues37.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 55.8%
government consumption: 21.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 30.1%
imports of goods and services: -32.3%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving21.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
21.1% of GDP (2011 est.)