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Ecuador: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
CapitalQuito Quito
geographic coordinates: 0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Constitutionmany previous; latest approved 20 October 2008; amended 2011 (2011)
Executive branchchief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: the president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term and can be re-elected for another consecutive term; election last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: President Rafael CORREA Delgado reelected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 57.2%, Guillermo LASSO 22.7%, Lucio GUTIERREZ 6.8%, Mauricio RODAS 3.9%, other 9.4%
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Columbia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice
note: similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
Independence24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts
Legal systemcivil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAIS 100, CREO 11, PSC 6, AVANZA 5, MUPP 5, PSP 5, other 5; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
International organization participationCAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayIndependence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE (Humberto CHOLANGO)
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE (Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president)
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
National Teacher's Union or UNE (Mariana PALLASCO)
Political parties and leadersAlianza PAIS movement (Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado)
Avanza Party or AVANZA (Ramiro GONZALEZ)
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO (Guillermo LASSO)
Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN (Alvaro NOBOA)
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP (Rafael ANTUNI)
Patriotic Society Party or PSP (Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua)
Popular Democracy Movement or MPD (Luis VILLACIS)
Roldosist Party or PRE
Social Christian Party or PSC (Pascual DEL CIOPPO)
Socialist Party (Fabian SOLANO)
Society United for More Action or SUMA (Mauricio RODAS)
Warrior's Spirit Movement (Jaime NEBOT)
Suffrage18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary
Government typerepublic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Saskia Nathalie CELY Suarez (since 2 December 2011)
chancery: 1050 30th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: (1) (202) 465-8140
FAX: (1) (202) 333-2893
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
National anthemname: "Salve, Oh Patria!" (We Salute You Our Homeland)
lyrics/music: Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE
note: adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Andean condor
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Adam E. NAMM (since 26 April 2012)
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone: (593) (2) 398-5000
FAX: (593) (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil