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Peru: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
CapitalLima Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region
Constitutionseveral previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009)
Executive branchchief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)
note: Prime Minister Rene CORNEJO (since 24 February 2014) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential election last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president; percent of vote - Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 48.5%
Flag descriptionthree equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
Independence28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years; justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; two types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
Legal systemcivil law system
Legislative branchunicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; note - as of 10 March 2014, the composition of the legislature is as follows: seats by bloc party - Gana Peru 43, Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) 36, PP 10, Accion Popular-Frente Amplio 10, National Solidarity 9, Union Regional 8, Partido Popular Cristiano-Alianza Para el Progreso 7, Concertacion Parlamentaria 6, Independent 1; note - defections by members of the National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in the formation of new blocs and frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various blocs
International organization participationAPEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayIndependence Day, 28 July (1821)
Political pressure groups and leadersGeneral Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP (Mario HUAMAN)
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL (Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)) (leftist guerrilla group)
Political parties and leadersAlliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP (Cesar ACUNA Peralta)
Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) (Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi)
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN (Luis CASTANEDA Lossio)
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) (Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique)
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP (Alan GARCIA Perez) (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party (Nadine HEREDIA Alarcon)
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC (Lourdes FLORES Nano)
Wide Front (Frente Amplio), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad (Marco ARANA Zegarra), Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio (Salomon LERNER Ghitis), and Fuerza Social (Susana VILLARAN de la Puente)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Government typeconstitutional republic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Harold Winston FORSYTH Mejia (since 29 August 2011)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: (1) (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: (1) (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco
National anthemname: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national contest for an anthem
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)vicuna (a camelid related to the llama)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael J. Fitzpatrick (since 20 September 2013)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: (51) (1) 618-2000
FAX: (51) (1) 618-2397