unbekannter Gast

Bhutan: Economy#

Bhutan's economy, small and less developed, is based largely on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than half of the population. Because rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive, industrial production is primarily of the cottage industry type. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and is dependent on India for financial assistance and migrant laborers for development projects, especially for road construction. Multilateral development organizations administer most educational, social, and environment programs, and take into account the government's desire to protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. For example, the government, in its cautious expansion of the tourist sector, encourages visits by upscale, environmentally conscientious tourists. Complicated controls and uncertain policies in areas such as industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment. Bhutan’s largest export - hydropower to India - is creating employment and will probably sustain growth in the coming years. Only 5% of Bhutan’s 30,000 megawatt hydropower potential is currently tapped. The large amount of equipment needed to import materials to build hydropower plants has expanded Bhutan's trade and current account deficits. Bhutan’s GDP has rebounded strongly since the global recession began in 2008. Bhutan hopes to play a larger role in regional economic integration as a member of the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation and the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation.

Economic Facts#

GDP (purchasing power parity)$5.235 billion (2013 est.)
$4.947 billion (2012 est.)
$4.529 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate5.8% (2013 est.)
9.2% (2012 est.)
8.5% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$7,000 (2013 est.)
$6,700 (2012 est.)
$6,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition, by sector of originagriculture: 13.8%
industry: 41.2%
services: 45% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line12% (2012)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 37.6% (2003)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 62%
industry: 19%
services: 19% (2012 est.)
Exports - commoditieselectricity (to India), ferrosilicon, cement, calcium carbide, copper wire, manganese, vegetable oil
Exports - partnersIndia 83.8%, Hong Kong 10.8% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - productsrice, corn, root crops, citrus; dairy products, eggs
Budgetrevenues: $588.2 million
expenditures: $639.5 million
note: the government of India finances nearly one-quarter of Bhutan's budget expenditures (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesfuel and lubricants, passenger cars, machinery and parts, fabrics, rice
Imports - partnersIndia 72.3%, South Korea 6% (2013 est.)
Exchange ratesngultrum (BTN) per US dollar -
56.61 (2013 est.)
53.44 (2012 est.)
45.73 (2010 est.)
46.68 (2009 est.)
43.51 (2008 est.)
Exports$721.8 million (2012 est.)
$662.2 million (2011 est.)
Debt - external$1.275 billion (2011)
$836 million (2009)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
Imports$1.28 billion (2012 est.)
$1.185 billion (2011 est.)
Industrial production growth rate7% (2013 est.)
Industriescement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide, tourism
Inflation rate (consumer prices)11% (2013 est.)
10.9% (2012 est.)
Labor force336,400
note: major shortage of skilled labor (2012)
Unemployment rate2.1% (2013)
4% (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index38.7
Public debt38.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
44.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Current account balance$401.5 million (2013 est.)
-$311.6 million (2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$2.133 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$63.5 million
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
$283.4 million
Central bank discount rateNA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate14% (31 December 2013 est.)
14% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$915 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$874.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$224.9 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$191.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.099 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.062 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues27.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-2.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 37.9%
government consumption: 21.3%
investment in fixed capital: 64%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 28.6%
imports of goods and services: -51.7%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving29.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
29.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
29.2% of GDP (2011 est.)