unbekannter Gast

Iran: Economy#

Iran's economy is marked by statist policies, an inefficient state sector, and reliance on oil, a major source of government revenues. Price controls, subsidies, and other distortions weigh down the economy, undermining the potential for private-sector-led growth. Private sector activity is typically limited to small-scale workshops, farming, some manufacturing, and services. Significant informal market activity flourishes and corruption is widespread. New fiscal and monetary constraints on Tehran, following the expansion of international sanctions in 2012 against Iran's Central Bank and oil exports, significantly reduced Iran's oil revenue, forced government spending cuts, and fueled a 60% currency depreciation. Economic growth turned negative in 2012 and 2013, for the first time in two decades. Iran continues to suffer from double-digit unemployment and underemployment. Lack of job opportunities has convinced many educated Iranian youth to seek jobs overseas, resulting in a significant "brain drain." However, the election of President Hasan RUHANI in June 2013 brought about widespread expectations of economic improvements and greater international engagement among the Iranian public, and early in Ruhani's term the country saw a strengthened national currency and a historic boost to market values at the Tehran Stock Exchange.

Economic Facts#

GDP (purchasing power parity)$987.1 billion (2013 est.)
$1.002 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.021 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate-1.5% (2013 est.)
-1.9% (2012 est.)
3% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$12,800 (2013 est.)
$13,200 (2012 est.)
$13,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition, by sector of originagriculture: 10.6%
industry: 44.9%
services: 44.5% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line18.7% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2005)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 16.9%
industry: 34.4%
services: 48.7% (2012 est.)
Exports - commoditiespetroleum 80%, chemical and petrochemical products, fruits and nuts, carpets
Exports - partnersChina 22.1%, India 11.9%, Turkey 10.6%, South Korea 7.6%, Japan 7.1% (2012)
Agriculture - productswheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, sugarcane, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar
Budgetrevenues: $47.84 billion
expenditures: $66.38 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiesindustrial supplies, capital goods, foodstuffs and other consumer goods, technical services
Imports - partnersUAE 33.2%, China 13.8%, Turkey 11.8%, South Korea 7.4% (2012)
Exchange ratesIranian rials (IRR) per US dollar -
18,517.2 (2013 est.)
12,175.5 (2012 est.)
10,254.18 (2010 est.)
9,864.3 (2009)
9,142.8 (2008)
note: Iran devalued its currency in July 2013
Exports$61.22 billion (2013 est.)
$67.04 billion (2012 est.)
Debt - external$15.64 billion (2013 est.)
$17.25 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Fiscal year21 March - 20 March
Imports$64.42 billion (2013 est.)
$70.03 billion (2012 est.)
Industrial production growth rate-5.2% (2013 est.)
Industriespetroleum, petrochemicals, fertilizers, caustic soda, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and non-ferrous metal fabrication, armaments
Inflation rate (consumer prices)42.3% (2013 est.)
30.5% (2012 est.)
note: official Iranian estimate
Labor force27.72 million
note: shortage of skilled labor (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate16% (2013 est.)
15.5% (2012 est.)
note: data are according to the Iranian Government
Distribution of family income - Gini index44.5 (2006)
Public debt18.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
18.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: includes publicly guaranteed debt
Current account balance-$8.659 billion (2013 est.)
-$9.333 billion (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$68.06 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$74.06 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$411.9 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$41.45 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$37.31 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$3.645 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.345 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2013 est.)
$140.8 billion (31 December 2012)
$107.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Central bank discount rateNA%
Commercial bank prime lending rate12% (2013 est.)
11% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$42.32 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$77.74 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$26.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$42.91 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$65.02 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$104.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues11.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-4.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 45.4%
government consumption: 14.1%
investment in fixed capital: 31.1%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.8%
imports of goods and services: -12.7%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving30.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
30.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
36.6% of GDP (2011 est.)