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Malaysia: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
CapitalKuala Lumpur; note - Putrajaya is referred to as an administrative center not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur, note - Putrajaya is referred to as an administrative center not the capital, ...
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Constitutionprevious 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2007 (2010)
Executive branchchief of state: King Tuanku ABDUL HALIM Mu'adzam Shah (selected on 13 December 2011; installed on 11 April 2012); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister MUHYIDDIN bin Mohamed Yassin (since 9 April 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the king
elections: kings are elected by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; selection is based on the principle of rotation among rulers of states; elections were last held on 14 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); prime ministers are designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands the support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister (since independence this has been the leader of the UMNO party)
election results: Tuanku ABDUL HALIM Mu'adzam Shah elected king by fellow hereditary rulers of nine states; Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak was sworn in as prime minister the day after his National Front (BN) coalition won a majority of seats during the 5 May 2013 national election; NAJIB was re-elected uncontested as UMNO president on 19 October 2013
Flag description14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers
note: the design is based on the flag of the US
Independence31 August 1957 (from the UK)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)
note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve till age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king, 26 elected by 13 state legislatures to serve three-year terms with a two term limit) and House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members elected in 222 constituencies in a first-pass-the-post system to serve up to five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - BN coalition 47.4%, opposition parties 50.9%, others 1.7%; seats - BN coalition 133, opposition parties 89
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National holidayIndependence Day 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Political pressure groups and leadersBar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
PEMBELA (Muslim NGO coalition)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)
other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
Political parties and leadersNational Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN (ruling coalition) consists of the following parties: Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN (KOH Tsu Koon)
Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP (LIEW Vui Keong)
Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA (CHUA Soi Lek)
Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC (Govindasamy PALANIVEL)
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS (Joseph KURUP)
Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS (Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan)
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB (Abdul TAIB Mahmud)
Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS (James MASING)
Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP (Tan Sri William MAKAN Ikom)
Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP (Peter CHIN Fah Kui)
United Malays National Organization or UMNO (NAJIB bin Abdul Razak)
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO (Bernard DOMPOK)
People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP (M.Kayveas)
People's Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat) or PR (opposition coalition) consists of the following parties: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP (KARPAL Singh)
Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS (Abdul HADI Awang
People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR (WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail)
Sarawak National Party or SNAP (Edwin DUNDANG)
notable independent parties: Sabah Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Sabah) or SAPP (YONG Teck Lee)
State Reform Pary (Parti Reformasi Negeri) or STAR (Jeffery KITINGAN)
Suffrage21 years of age; universal
Government typeconstitutional monarchy
note: nominally headed by paramount ruler (commonly referred to as the king) and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador AWANG ADEK Bin Hussin (since 21 May 2015)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 572-9700
FAX: (1) (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
National anthemname: "Negaraku" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER
note: adopted 1957; the full version is only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie," was originally the anthem of the state of Perak
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
National symbol(s)tiger
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 12 September 2013)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: (60) (3) 2168-5000
FAX: (60) (3) 2142-2207