# Russia: Culture#

## World Heritage#

- Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments
- Kizhi Pogost
- Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow
- Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands
- Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings
- White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal
- Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad
- Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye
- Virgin Komi Forests
- Lake Baikal
- Volcanoes of Kamchatka
- Golden Mountains of Altai
- Western Caucasus
- Curonian Spit
- Ensemble of the Ferapontov Monastery
- Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin
- Central Sikhote-Alin
- Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent
- Uvs Nuur Basin
- Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent
- Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve
- Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl
- Struve Geodetic Arc
- Putorana Plateau
- Lena Pillars Nature Park
- Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex

## Nobel Prize Winners (30)#

Here persons are counted for the country they born in or if their affiliation is with this country.Name | Category | Year | Motivation |
---|---|---|---|

Alexei A. Abrikosov | Physics | 2003 | "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" |

Martti Ahtisaari | Peace | 2008 | "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts" |

Zhores I. Alferov | Physics | 2000 | "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics" |

Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov | Physics | 1964 | "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle" |

Joseph Brodsky | Literature | 1987 | "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity" |

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin | Literature | 1933 | "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing" |

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov | Physics | 1958 | "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" |

Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank | Physics | 1958 | "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" |

Andre Geim | Physics | 2010 | "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene" |

Vitaly L. Ginzburg | Physics | 2003 | "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" |

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev | Peace | 1990 | "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community" |

Leonid Hurwicz | Economics | 2007 | "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory" |

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich | Economics | 1975 | "for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources" |

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa | Physics | 1978 | "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics" |

Paul Karrer | Chemistry | 1937 | "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2" |

Lev Davidovich Landau | Physics | 1962 | "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" |

Wassily Leontief | Economics | 1973 | "for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems" |

Fritz Albert Lipmann | Medicine | 1953 | "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism" |

Konstantin Novoselov | Physics | 2010 | "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene" |

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak | Literature | 1958 | "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition" |

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov | Medicine | 1904 | "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged" |

Ilya Prigogine | Chemistry | 1977 | "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures" |

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov | Physics | 1964 | "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle" |

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov | Peace | 1975 | |

Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov | Chemistry | 1956 | "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions" |

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov | Literature | 1965 | "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people" |

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn | Literature | 1970 | "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature" |

Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm | Physics | 1958 | "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" |

Otto Wallach | Chemistry | 1910 | "in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds" |

Wilhelm Wien | Physics | 1911 | "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat" |

## Partial List of Famous People#

- Aleksandr Borodin
- Aleksandr Scriabin
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
- Alexander Berkman
- Alexander Herzen
- Alexander III of Russia
- Alexei Kosygin
- Anatoly Chubais
- Anton Chekhov
- Ayn Rand
- Boris Yeltsin
- Catherine the Great
- Cesar Cui
- Dmitry Shostakovich
- Fyodor Dostoevsky
- Georgy Zhukov
- Ivan Bunin
- Leo Tolstoy
- Leon Trotsky
- Leonid Brezhnev
- Maxim Gorky
- Mikhail Bakunin
- Mikhail Glinka
- Mikhail Gorbachev
- Modest Mussorgsky
- Nicholas II
- Nikita Khrushchev
- Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
- Sergei Prokofiev
- Valeriya Novodvorskaya
- Vladimir Lenin
- Vladimir Nabokov
- Vladimir Putin

## Field Medal Winners#

Name | Year | Affiliation |
---|---|---|

Maxim Kontsevich | 1998 | Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques |

Andrei Okounkov | 2006 | Princeton University |

Grigori Perelman | 2006 | |

Stanislav K. Smirnov | 2010 | University of Geneva |

Vladimir Voevodsky | 2002 | Institute for Advanced Study |

Efim I. Zelmanov | 1994 | University of Wisconsin (now at the University of Chicago) |

## Wolf Prize Winner#

Name | Category | Year | Motivation |
---|---|---|---|

Vitaly L. Ginzburg | Physics | 1995 | THE 1994/5 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE AT PHYSICS for his contribution to elementary particle theory, including recognition of the role played by spontaneous symmetry-breaking in analogy with uperconductivity theory, and the discovery of the color symmetry of the strong interactions. |

Izrail M. Gelfand | Mathematics | 1978 | THE 1978 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee in Mathematics has carefully considered all candidates and has reached a unanimous conclusion that the Wolf Prize in Mathematics this year should be awarded for his work on functional analysis, group representation, and for his seminal contributions to many areas of mathematics and its applications, |

Andrei N. Kolmogorov | Mathematics | 1980 | THE 1980 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee unanimously decided to select as co-recipients of the Wolf Prize for mathematics for 1980 for deep and original discoveries in Fourier analysis, probability theory, ergodic theory and dynamical systems. |

Mark G. Krein | Mathematics | 1982 | THE 1982 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee for Mathematics has unanimously chosen the following Wolf Prize winner to equally share the 1982 award for his fundamental contributions to functional analysis and its applications. |

Mikhael Gromov | Mathematics | 1993 | THE 1993 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Mathematics Prize Committee has unanimously selected the following scientist to equally share the Wolf Prize for 1993: for his revolutionary contributions to global Riemannian and symplectic geometry, algebraic topology, geometric group theory and the theory of partial differential equations. |

Yakov G. Sinai | Mathematics | 1996 | THE 1996/7 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee for Mathematics has unanimously decided that the Wolf Prize for 1996/7 be awarded for his fundamental contributions to mathematically rigorous methods in statistical mechanics and the ergodic theory of dynamical systems and their applications in physics. |

Vladimir I. Arnold | Mathematics | 2001 | THE 2001 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee for Mathematics has unanimously decided that the 2001 Prize be awarded for his deep and influential work in a multitude of areas of mathematics, including dynamical systems, differential equations, and singularity theory. |

Sergei P. Novikov | Mathematics | 2005 | THE 2005 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee for Mathematics has unanimously decided that the 2005 Wolf Prize will be awarded for his fundamental and pioneering contributions to algebraic and differential topology, and to mathematical physics, notably the introduction of algebraic-geometric methods |

Gregory A. Margulis | Mathematics | 2005 | THE 2005 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee for Mathematics has unanimously decided that the 2005 Wolf Prize will be awarded for his monumental contributions to algebra, in particular to the theory of lattices in semi-simple Lie groups, and striking applications of this to ergodic theory, representation theory, number theory, combinatorics, and measure theory, and |

Alexander Varshavsky | Medicine | 2001 | THE 2001 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE The Prize Committee for Medicine has unanimously decided that the Prize for 2001 be awarded for the discovery of the ubiquitin system of intracellular protein degradation and the crucial functions of this system in cellular regulation. |

Vladimir Horowitz | Music | 1982 | THE 1982 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN ARTS (MUSIC) for his outstanding contribution to the art of musical interpretation, and especially his musicalization of pianism. |

Mstislav Rostropovich | Music | 2004 | Wolf Prize in the Arts (Music) for a cellist, conductor, pianist and exceptional human being, who has created a career of monumental proportions |