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France: Culture#

World Heritage#

Nobel Prize Winners (61)#

Here persons are counted for the country they born in or if their affiliation is with this country.
Maurice AllaisEconomics1988"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"
Françoise Barré-SinoussiMedicine2008"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"
Antoine Henri BecquerelPhysics1903"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
Henri BergsonLiterature1927"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"
Hans Albrecht BethePhysics1967"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
Léon Victor Auguste BourgeoisPeace1920
Karl Ferdinand BraunPhysics1909"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
Aristide BriandPeace1926
Ferdinand BuissonPeace1927
Alexis CarrelMedicine1912"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"
René CassinPeace1968
Yves ChauvinChemistry2005"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
Claude Cohen-TannoudjiPhysics1997"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
André Frédéric CournandMedicine1956"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
Pierre CuriePhysics1903"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
Marie Curie, née SklodowskaChemistry1911"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"
Paul Henri Benjamin Balluet d'Estournelles de Constant, Baron de Constant de RebecquePeace1909
Jean DaussetMedicine1980"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de BrogliePhysics1929"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"
Pierre-Gilles de GennesPhysics1991"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
Gerard DebreuEconomics1983"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"
Albert FertPhysics2007"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
Anatole FranceLiterature1921"in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"
André Paul Guillaume GideLiterature1947"for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"
Victor GrignardChemistry1912"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"
Charles Edouard GuillaumePhysics1920"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
Roger GuilleminMedicine1977"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
Jules A. HoffmannMedicine2011"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
François JacobMedicine1965"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
Frédéric JoliotChemistry1935"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"
Irène Joliot-CurieChemistry1935"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"
Léon JouhauxPeace1951
Alfred KastlerPhysics1966"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
Charles Louis Alphonse LaveranMedicine1907"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"
Jean-Marie Gustave Le ClézioLiterature2008"author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"
Jean-Marie LehnChemistry1987"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
Luis F. LeloirChemistry1970"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"
Gabriel LippmannPhysics1908"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
André LwoffMedicine1965"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
Seán MacBridePeace1974
Roger Martin du GardLiterature1937"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault"
François MauriacLiterature1952"for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"
Ilya Ilyich MechnikovMedicine1908"in recognition of their work on immunity"
Frédéric MistralLiterature1904"in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"
Patrick ModianoLiterature2014for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation
Henri MoissanChemistry1906"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"
Jacques MonodMedicine1965"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
Luc MontagnierMedicine2008"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"
Louis Eugène Félix NéelPhysics1970"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
Charles Jules Henri NicolleMedicine1928"for his work on typhus"
Frédéric PassyPeace1901
Jean Baptiste PerrinPhysics1926"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
Sully PrudhommeLiterature1901"in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"
Louis RenaultPeace1907
Charles Robert RichetMedicine1913"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"
Romain RollandLiterature1915"as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"
Paul SabatierChemistry1912"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"
Jean-Paul SartreLiterature1964"for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"
Albert SchweitzerPeace1952
Jean TiroleEconomics2014"for his analysis of market power and regulation"
Alfred WernerChemistry1913"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

Partial List of Famous People#

Field Medal Winners#

Artur Avila Cordeiro de Melo2014CNRS - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu-Paris Rive Gauche
Ngô Bao Châu2010Université Paris-Sud 11 and Institute for Advanced Study
Alain Connes1982Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques  
Alexander Grothendieck1966University of Paris
Laurent Lafforgue2002Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques  
Pierre-Louis Lions1994Université de Paris-Dauphine, CEREMADE
Laurent Schwartz1950Nancy University
Jean-Pierre Serre1954Collège de France
René Thom1958University of Strasbourg
Cédric Villani2010École Normale Supérieure de Lyon and Institut Henri Poincaré
Wendelin Werner2006Université Paris-Sud
Jean-Christophe Yoccoz1994Université de Paris-Sud (Orsay)

National Parks#

Wolf Prize Winner#

Henri B. KaganChemistry2001THE 2001 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY The Prize Committee for Chemistry has unanimously decided that the Prize for 2001 be awarded for his pioneering, creative and crucial work in developing asymmetric catalysis for the synthesis of chiral molecules, greatly increasing mankind´s ability to create new products of fundamental and practical importance.
Philippe NozieresPhysics1985THE 1984/5 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN PHYSICS for their major contributions to the fundamental theory of solids, especially of the behaviour of electronsin metals.
Albert J. LibchaberPhysics1986HE 1986 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN PHYSICS for his brilliant experimental demonstration of the transition to turbulence and chaos in dynamical systems.
Pierre-Gilles de GennesPhysics1990THE 1990 WOLF FOUNDATON PRIZE IN PHYSICS for a wide variety of pioneering contributions to our understanding of the organization of complex condensed matter systems,de Gennes especially for his work on macromolecular matter and liquid crystals and Thouless for his on disordered and low-dimensional systems.
Benoit B. MandelbrotPhysics1993THE 1993 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN PHYSICS by recognizing the widespread occurrence of fractals and developing mathematical tools for describing them, he has changed our view of nature.
Albert FertPhysics2007THE 2006/7 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN PHYSICS for their independent discovery of the giant magnetoresistance phenomenon (GMR), thereby launching a new field of research and applications known as spintronics, which utilizes the spin of the electron to store and transport information.
Alain AspectPhysics2010Wolf Prize be jointly awarded to: For their fundamental conceptual and experimental contributions to the foundations of quantum physics, specifically an increasingly sophisticated series of tests of Bell’s inequalities or extensions there of using entangled quantum states.
Andre WeilMathematics1979THE 1979 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS for his inspired introduction of algebro-geometry methods to the theory of numbers.
Jean LerayMathematics1979THE 1979 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee for Mathematics has decided that the prize for this year should be divided for his inspired introduction of algebro-geometry to the theory of numbers.
Henri CartanMathematics1980THE 1980 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee unanimously decided to select as co-recipients of the Wolf Prize for mathematics for 1980 for pioneering work in algebraic topology, complex variables homological algebra and inspired leadership of a generation of mathematicians.
Jacques TitsMathematics1993THE 1993 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Mathematics Prize Committee has unanimously selected the following scientist to equally share the Wolf Prize for 1993: for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to the theory of the structure of algebraic and other classes of groups and in particular for the theory of buildings
Mikhael GromovMathematics1993THE 1993 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Mathematics Prize Committee has unanimously selected the following scientist to equally share the Wolf Prize for 1993: for his revolutionary contributions to global Riemannian and symplectic geometry, algebraic topology, geometric group theory and the theory of partial differential equations.
Jean-Pierre SerreMathematics2000THE 2000 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MATHEMATICS The Prize Committee for Mathematics has unanimously decided that the 2000 Prize be awarded for his many fundamental contributions to topology, algebraic geometry, algebra, and number theory and for his inspirational lectures and writing.
Jean DaussetMedicine1978THE 1978 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE AT MEDICINE The Wolf Foundation Prize Committee in Medicine has decided to award the first Wolf Prize in Medicine jointly for discovering the HL-A system, the major histocompatibility complex in man and its primordial role in organ transplantation.
Jean-Pierre ChangeuxMedicine1982THE 1982 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN MEDICINE The Prize Committee for Medicine has unanimously decided that the Wolf Foundation Prize for 1982 should be equally divided for the isolation, purification and characterization of the acetylcholine receptor.
Charles ThibaultAgriculture1988THE 1988 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN AGRICULTURE The Agriculture Prize Committee has unanimously selected the following to equally share the 1988 Wolf Prize for pioneering work in reproductive physiology including cell preservation, fertilization processes, egg biology and embryo manipulations for domestic animal improvement.
Olivier MessiaenMusic1982THE 1982 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN ARTS (MUSIC) for his inspired and inspiring extension of our sound world.
Pierre BoulezMusic2000THE 2000 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN ARTS (MUSIC) for One of the most creative living personalities in the realm of music.
Louise BourgeoisPainting2003THE 2002/3 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN THE ARTS for an oeuvre, that for six decades and encompassing a remarkable range of media, has sustained aesthetic and formal innovation, intellectual complexity and contemporary relevance.
Jean NouvelArchitecture2005THE 2005 WOLF FOUNDATION PRIZE IN THE ARTS (ARCHITECTURE) for providing a new model of contextualism and redefining the dialectic between the two salient characteristics of contemporary architecture: concreteness and ephemerality.