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Hungary: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: none
local short form: Magyarorszag
CapitalBudapest Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
Constitutionprevious 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
Executive branchchief of state: Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 May 2012 (next to be held by May 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election following the formation of a new government held on 10 May 2014
election results: Janos ADER elected president, National Assembly vote - 262 to 40; Viktor ORBAN elected prime minister, National Assembly vote - 130 to 57
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first round or a simple majority in the second round
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country
Independence16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of Curia president and 8 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 members)
judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected from among its members for 9 years by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Council of Justice, a separate 15-member administrative body; all judges serve until the normal retirement age; Constitutional Court members elected by two-thirds vote of the National Assembly; members serve 12-year terms
subordinate courts: regional courts of appeal; county courts, including the Municipal Court of Budapest; local courts
Legal systemcivil legal system influenced by the German model
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 single-round, single-member district vote, 93 nationwide party list vote; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 6 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - Fidesz-KNDP 66.8%, Unity 19.1%, Jobbik 11.6%, LMP 2.5%; seats by party - Fidesz-KNDP 133, Unity 38, Jobbik 23, LMP 5
International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National holidaySaint Stephen's Day, 20 August; note - commemorates the date when his remains were transferred to Buda (now Budapest)
Political pressure groups and leadersAir Work Group (works to reduce air pollution in towns and cities)
Danube Circle (protests the building of the Gabchikovo-Nagymaros dam)
Fourth Republic (Negyedik Koztarsasag) or 4K! (anti-Orban, pro-democracy Facebook movement emerged from a Facebook group, One Million for Freedom of the Press or "Milla")
Green Future (protests the impact of lead contamination of local factory on health of the people)
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression, information privacy)
Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers' rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system)
Szolidaritas ("Solidarity," formed in October 2011 by three trade unions and an NGO - anti-Orban government)
"Egyutt 2014-Parbeszed Magyarorszagert" ("Together 2014-Dialogue for Hungary," a political electoral alliance bringing together Milla, Szolidaritas, and "Haza es Haladas," an association headed by former PM Gordon BAJNAI, to contest Fidesz and Viktor ORBAN in the 2014 parliamentary elections)
Civil Osszefogas Forum ("Civil Unity Forum," nominally independent organization that serves as the steering committee for the pro-government mass organization Bekemenet (Peace March), supporting ORBAN government's policies)
environmentalists: Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation Society (Magyar Madartani Egyesulet) or MME
Green Alternative (Zold Alternativa)
Political parties and leadersChristian Democratic People's Party or KDNP (Zsolt SEMJEN)
Democratic Coalition or DK (Ferenc GYURCSANY)
Dialogue for Hungary or PM (Benedek JAVOR, Timea SZABO, co-chairs)
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz (Viktor ORBAN, chairman)
Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP (Gabor FODOR)
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP (Attila MESTERHAZY)
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik (Gabor VONA)
Politics Can Be Different or LMP (Andras SCHIFFER, Bernadett SZEL)
Together or Egyutt (Gordon BAJNAI)
Unity (a coalition of MSZP, Egyutt, DK, PM, and MLP)
Suffrage18 years of age, 16 if married; universal
Government typeparliamentary democracy
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Gyorgy SZAPARY (since 31 January 2011)
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 362-6730
FAX: (1) (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
National anthemname: "Himnusz" (Hymn)
lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL
note: adopted 1844
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); turul (falcon)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires M. Andre GOODFRIEND (since August 2013)
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: (36) (1) 475-4400
FAX: (36) (1) 475-4764