unbekannter Gast

Italy: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy
CapitalRome Rome
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)
regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)
autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
Constitutionprevious 1848 (originally for Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)
Executive branchchief of state: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 May 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Matteo RENZI (since 22 February 2014); note - the prime minister is referred to as the President of the Council of Ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and nominated by the President of the Republic
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18-20 April 2013 (next scheduled for 2020); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament; national parliamentary elections were last held on 24-25 February 2013
election results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the sixth round of voting; electoral college vote - 738 out of a possible 1,007 (504 votes required); Enrico LETTA sworn in as prime minister on 28 April 2013 following formal talks between the center-left Democratic Party (PD), the center-right People of Freedom party (PdL), the centrist Civic Choice, and President NAPOLITANO that also led to the creation of a broad coalition government; the talks coming after the February 2013 legislative election produced a stalemate that impeded government formation; the PdL split into the Forza Italia and the New Center Right (NCD) in November 2013 and only the NCD remained in the governing coalition
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guard
note: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and green
Independence17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione (organized into penal, civil, administrative, and military divisions, each with a president and several judges); Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president, to serve NA terms; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years)
subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)
Legal systemcivil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (321 seats; members elected by proportional vote with the winning coalition in each region receiving 55% of seats from that region; members to serve five-year terms; and up to 5 senators for life appointed by the president of the Republic) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; members elected by popular vote with the winning national coalition receiving 54% of chamber seats; members to serve five-year terms); note - it has not been clarified if each president has the power to designate up to five senators or if five is the number of senators for life who might sit in the Senate
elections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition (Pier Luigi BERSANI) 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), center-right coalition (Silvio BERLUSCONI) 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, centrist coalition (Mario MONTI) 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - center-left coalition (Pier Luigi BERSANI) 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), center-right coalition (Silvio BERLUSCONI) 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, centrist coalition (Mario MONTI) 47, other 4; note - President NAPOLITANO dissolved Parliament on 22 December 2012
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National holidayRepublic Day, 2 June (1946)
Political pressure groups and leadersmanufacturers and merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustria
organized farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; Roman Catholic Church
three major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL (Susanna CAMUSSO) which is left wing; Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL (Raffaele BONANNI), which is Roman Catholic centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL (Luigi ANGELETTI) which is lay centrist
Political parties and leadersCenter-right parties:: Forza Italia (Silvio BERLUSCONI)
The New Center-Right or NCD (Angelino ALFANO)
Northern League or LN (Roberto MARONI)
Brothers of Italy or Fdl (Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO)
The Right or LD (Francesco STORACE)
other minor parties
Center-left parties:: Democratic Party or PD (Matteo RENZI)
Left Ecology Freedom or SEL (Nichi VENDOLA)
Italian Socialist Party or PSI (Riccardo NENCINI)
Democratic Centre or CD (Bruno TABACCI and Massimo DONADI)
South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP (Arno KOMPATSCHER)
Centrist parties:: Civic Choice or SC (Alberto BOMBASSEI)
Union of the Center or UdC (Pier Ferdinando CASINI)
Future and Freedom for Italy or FLI (vacant)
other coalitions and parties:: Five Star Movment or M5S (Beppe GRILLO)
Civil Revolution or RC (Antonio INGROIA)
Act to Stop the Decline or FiD (Michele BOLDRIN)
Suffrage18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
Government typerepublic
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Claudio BISOGNIERO (since 13 January 2012)
chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 612-4400
FAX: (1) (202) 518-2154
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco
consulate(s): Detroit, Newark (NJ), San Francisco
National anthemname: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)
lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO
note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
National symbol(s)white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia)
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador John R. PHILLIPS (since 16 August 2013); note - also accredited to San Marino
embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: (39) (06) 46741
FAX: (39) (06) 4674-2244
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples