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Indian Ocean: Geography#

Locationbody of water between Africa, the Southern Ocean, Asia, and Australia
Geographic Coordinates20 00 S, 80 00 E -20.0,80.0
Land boundariesNA
Coastline66,526 km
Elevation Extremeslowest point: Java Trench -7,258 m
highest point: sea level 0 m
Highest Mountains
Terrainsurface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninetyeast Ridge
Natural Hazardsoccasional icebergs pose navigational hazard in southern reaches
Natural Resourceoil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules
Land UseNA
Climatenortheast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean
Irrigated LandNA
Renewable Water ResourcesNA
Environment_CurrentIssuesendangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea
Environment - international agreementsNA
Large Cities
Geography-notemajor chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait