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Southern Ocean: Transportation#

Transportation - noteDrake Passage offers alternative to transit through the Panama Canal
Ports and terminalsmajor seaport(s): McMurdo, Palmer, and offshore anchorages in Antarctica
note: few ports or harbors exist on the southern side of the Southern Ocean; ice conditions limit use of most to short periods in midsummer; even then some cannot be entered without icebreaker escort; most Antarctic ports are operated by government research stations and, except in an emergency, are not open to commercial or private vessels