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Svalbard: Geography#

LocationNorthern Europe, islands between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea, north of Norway
Geographic Coordinates78 00 N, 20 00 E 78.0,20.0
Land boundaries0 km
Coastline3,587 km
Elevation Extremeslowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m
Highest Mountains
Terrainwild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Natural Hazardsice floes often block the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic
Natural Resourcecoal, iron ore, copper, zinc, phosphate, wildlife, fish
Land Usearable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (no trees; the only bushes are crowberry and cloudberry) (2011)
Climatearctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Irrigated LandNA
Renewable Water ResourcesNA
Environment_CurrentIssuesNA
Environment - international agreementsNA
Large Cities
Geography-notenorthernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area; Spitsbergen Island is the site of the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, a seed repository established by the Global Crop Diversity Trust and the Norwegian Government