!!!Ferdinand I., geb. 1503

Ferdinand I, b. Alcalá de Henares near Madrid (Spain), March 10, 1503, 
d. Vienna, July 25, 1564, emperor, younger brother of  Karl V, 
grandson of  Maximilian I; in the agreements of Worms and 
Brussels was handed over the Austrian lands in 1521/22 and established 
the Austrian line of the Habsburgs; 1526 King of Bohemia and Hungary, 
1531 Roman King, 1558 Emperor. In order to eliminate opposition and to 
enforce his power he executed members of the estates of Lower Austria, 
among others Martin Siebenbuerger, in Wiener Neustadt in 1522. On 
account of Hungary he was involved in wars against the Ottomans (1529 
First Turkish Siege of Vienna, 1532, 1537-1547). The peasant revolts 
in the Tyrol and in Styria in 1525/26 and the advance of Protestantism 
constituted the most serious internal problems. In order to strengthen 
the Catholic Church, F. called the Jesuits to Vienna, Graz and 
Innsbruck. He brought about the Treaty of Passau in 1552, and 
concluded the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. However, he did not succeed 
in enforcing the Peace of Augsburg in his lands. He several times 
granted concessions to the estates. Created central administration 
authorities: The Privy Council (Geheimer Rat), the Court Council 
(Hofrat), the Court Treasury (Hofkammer), the Court Council of War 
(Hofkriegsrat), and the Court Chancery (Hofkanzlei). In 1554 enacted 
the  Ferdinandeische Hausordnung, a decree which defined how the 
hereditary lands were to be split up. He divided up the lands between 
his three sons. buried in St. Vitus' cathedral in Prague.

W. Hilger, Ikonographie F. I., 1969; P. 
Sutter-Fichtner, F. I., 1986.

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