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India: People & Society#

Population1,266,883,598 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groupsIndo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
LanguagesHindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
ReligionsHindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.71% (male 186,420,229/female 164,611,755)
15-24 years: 17.99% (male 121,009,850/female 106,916,692)
25-54 years: 40.91% (male 267,203,029/female 251,070,105)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 46,398,574/female 46,105,489)
65 years and over: 6.09% (male 36,549,003/female 40,598,872) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 52.4%
youth dependency ratio: 43.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6%
potential support ratio: 11.7% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.6 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.19% (2016 est.)
Birth rate19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 32.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationNEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.9
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2005/06 est.)
Maternal mortality rate174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.5 years
male: 67.3 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate54.8% (2007/08)
Health expenditures4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.7 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.26% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS2,118,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths67,600 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate4.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight43.5% (2006)
Education expenditures3.8% of GDP (2013)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2013)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 26,965,074
percentage: 12% (2006 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 10.7%
male: 10.4%
female: 11.6% (2012 est.)