!!!Iraq: Government
||Country name|''conventional long form'': Republic of Iraq \\ ''conventional short form'': Iraq \\ ''local long form'': Jumhuriyat al-Iraq/Komar-i Eraq \\ ''local short form'': Al Iraq/Eraq \\ ''etymology'': the name probably derives from "Uruk" (Biblical "Erech"), the ancient Sumerian and Babylonian city on the Euphrates River \\ 
||Government type|federal parliamentary republic
||Capital|Baghdad[{GoogleMap location='Baghdad' zoom='6'}] \\ ''geographic coordinates'': 33 20 N, 44 24 E \\ ''time difference'': UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time) \\ 
||Administrative divisions|18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah (Arabic); parezgakan, singular - parezga (Kurdish)) and 1 region*; Al Anbar; Al Basrah; Al Muthanna; Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah); An Najaf; Arbil (Erbil) (Arabic), Hewler (Kurdish); As Sulaymaniyah (Arabic), Slemani (Kurdish); Babil; Baghdad; Dahuk (Arabic), Dihok (Kurdish); Dhi Qar; Diyala; Karbala'; Kirkuk; Kurdistan Regional Government*; Maysan; Ninawa; Salah ad Din; Wasit
||Independence|3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
||National holiday|Republic Day, July 14 (1958); note - the Government of Iraq has yet to declare an official national holiday but still observes Republic Day
||Constitution|several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005 (2016)
||Legal system|mixed legal system of civil and Islamic law
||International law organization participation|has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
||Citizenship|''citizenship by birth'': no \\ ''citizenship by descent only'': at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq \\ ''dual citizenship recognized'': yes \\ ''residency requirement for naturalization'': 10 years \\ 
||Suffrage|18 years of age; universal
||Executive branch|''chief of state'': President Fuad MASUM (since 24 July 2014); Vice Presidents Ayad ALLAWI (since 9 September 2014), Nuri al-MALIKI (since 8 September 2014), Usama al-NUJAYFI (since 8 September 2014) \\ ''head of government'': Prime Minister Haydar al-ABADI (since 8 September 2014) \\ ''cabinet'': Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives \\ ''elections/appointments'': president indirectly elected by Council of Representatives to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 April 2014 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by Council of Representatives \\ ''election results'': Fuad MASUM elected president; Council of Representatives vote - Fuad MASUM (PUK) 211, Barham SALIH (PUK) 17; Haydar al-ABADI (Da'wa Party) approved as prime minister \\ 
||Legislative branch|''description'': unicameral Council of Representatives or Majlis an-Nuwwab al-Iraqiyy (328 seats; 320 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 8 seats reserved for minorities; members serve 4-year terms); note - Iraq's constitution calls for the establishment of an upper house, the Federation Council, but it has not been instituted \\ ''elections'': last held on 30 April 2014 (next to be held in 2018) \\ ''election results'': Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by coalition/party – State of Law Coalition 95, Ahrar Bloc/Sadrist Trend 34, ISCI/Muwatin 30, KDP 25, United for Reform Coalition/Muttahidun 23, PUK 21, Nationalism Coalition/Wataniyah 19, other Sunni coalitions/parties 15, Al-Arabiyah Coalition 10, Goran 9, other Shia parties/coalitions 9, Fadilah 6, National Reform Trend 6, Iraq Coalition 5, KIU 4, other 17 \\ 
||Judicial branch|''highest court(s)'': Federal Supreme Court or FSC (consists of 9 judges); note - court jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues and disputes between regions or governorates and the central government; Court of Cassation (consists of a court president, 5 vice-presidents, and at least 24 judges) \\ ''judge selection and term of office'': Federal Supreme Court and Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Higher Juridical Council, a 25-member committee of judicial officials that manage the judiciary and prosecutors; FSC members appointed for life; Court of Cassation judges appointed for 1-year probationary period and upon satisfactory performance may be confirmed for permanent tenure until retirement nominally at age 63 \\ ''subordinate courts'': Courts of Appeal (governorate level); courts of first instance; personal status, labor, criminal, juvenile, and religious courts \\ 
||Political parties and leaders|Al-Arabiyah Coalition (Salih al-MUTLAQ) \\ Badr Organization (Hadi al-AMIRI) \\ Da`wa Party (Vice President Nuri al-MALIKI) \\ Da`wa Tanzim (Hashim al-MUSAWI) \\ Fadilah Party (Muhammad al-YAQUBI) \\ Goran Party (Nawhirwan MUSTAFA) \\ Iraq Coalition (Abd al-Salam al-HAMMUDI) \\ Iraqi Front for National Dialogue (Salih al-MUTLAQ) \\ Iraqi Justice and Reform Movement (Shaykh Abdallah al-YAWR) \\ Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI/Muwatin Coalition (Ammar al-HAKIM) \\ Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP (Masud BARZANI) \\ Kurdistan Islamic Union or KIU (Mohammed FARA) \\ Nationalism Coalition/Wataniyah (Vice President Ayad ALLAWI) \\ National Movement for Reform and Development (Muhammad al-KARBULI) \\ National Reform Trend (Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI) \\ Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK (former President Jalal TALABANI) \\ Sadrist Movement or Ahrar Bloc (Muqtada al-SADR) \\ State of Law Coalition (Vice President Nuri al MALIKI) \\ Unites for Reform Coalition/Muttahidun (Vice President Usama al-NUJAYFI) \\ ''__note__'': numerous smaller local, tribal, and minority parties \\ 
||Political pressure groups and leaders|Sunni militias; Shia militias, some associated with political parties
||International organization participation|ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
||Diplomatic representation in the US|''chief of mission'': Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mohamad Jawad Mahdi Jawad ALQURAISHY (since 1 July 2016) \\ ''chancery'': 3421 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007 \\ ''telephone'': (1) (202) 742-1600 \\ ''FAX'': (1) (202) 333-1129 \\ ''consulate(s) general'': Detroit, Los Angeles \\ 
||Diplomatic representation from the US|''chief of mission'': Ambassador Douglas A. SILLIMAN (since 1 September 2016) \\ ''embassy'': Al-Kindi Street, International Zone, Baghdad \\ ''mailing address'': APO AE 09316 \\ ''telephone'': 0760-030-3000 \\ ''FAX'': NA \\ 
||Flag description|three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great") in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise temporary replacement for the Ba'athist SADDAM-era flag \\ ''__note__'': similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script; Yemen, which has a plain white band; and that of Egypt, which has a golden Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band \\ 
||National symbol(s)|golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black
||National anthem|''name'': "Mawtini" (My Homeland) \\ ''lyrics/music'': Ibrahim TOUQAN/Mohammad FLAYFEL \\  \\ ''__note__'': adopted 2004; following the ouster of SADDAM Husayn, Iraq adopted "Mawtini," a popular folk song throughout the Arab world; also serves as an unofficial anthem of the Palestinian people \\