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Kazakhstan: People & Society#

Population18,360,353 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kazakhstani(s)
adjective: Kazakhstani
Ethnic groupsKazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.9%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.4% (2009 est.)
LanguagesKazakh (official, Qazaq) 74% (understand spoken language), Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 94.4% (understand spoken language) (2009 est.)
ReligionsMuslim 70.2%, Christian 26.2% (mainly Russian Orthodox), other 0.2%, atheist 2.8%, unspecified 0.5% (2009 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.68% (male 2,336,444/female 2,378,769)
15-24 years: 14.66% (male 1,371,133/female 1,319,938)
25-54 years: 42.5% (male 3,808,164/female 3,994,781)
55-64 years: 9.77% (male 784,035/female 1,008,935)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 470,485/female 887,669) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 50.3%
youth dependency ratio: 40.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.1%
potential support ratio: 9.9% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.3 years
male: 29 years
female: 31.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.09% (2016 est.)
Birth rate18.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate8.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Population distributionmost of the country displays a low population density, particularly the interior; population clusters appear in urban agglomerations in the far northern and southern portions of the country
Urbanizationurban population: 53.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationAlmaty 1.523 million; ASTANA (capital) 759,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth25 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate12 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 70.8 years
male: 65.6 years
female: 75.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate2.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate51% (2010/11)
Health expenditures4.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density3.62 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density7.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 85.6% of population
total: 92.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 14.4% of population
total: 7.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 98.1% of population
total: 97.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 1.9% of population
total: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.21% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS23,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths500 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate23.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight3.7% (2011)
Education expenditures3.1% of GDP (2009)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2015)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 59,254
percentage: 2% (2006 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 3.9%
male: 3.6%
female: 4.3% (2013 est.)