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Malaysia: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
etymology: the name means "Land of the Malays"
Government typefederal constitutional monarchy
note: nominally headed by paramount ruler (commonly referred to as the king) and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
CapitalKuala Lumpur; note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur, note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital, ...
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Independence31 August 1957 (from the UK)
National holidayIndependence Day 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Constitutionprevious 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2010 (2016)
Legal systemmixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
International law organization participationhas not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malaysia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 out 12 years preceding application
Suffrage21 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King MUHAMMAD V (formerly known as Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra) (selected on 14 October 2016; installed on 13 December 2016); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad ZAHID Hamidi (since 29 July 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king
elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 14 October 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister
election results: Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (UMNO) sworn in as prime minister for second term on 3 April 2009
Legislative branchdescription: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - BN 47.4%, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 50.9%, other 1.7%; seats by party/coalition - BN 133, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 89

note: seats by party/coalition as of October 2016 - BN 132, PH 72 (DAP 37, PKR 28, AMANAH 6, PPBM 1), PAS 14, WARISAN 2, PSM 1, independent 1
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice, president of the Court of Appeal, chief justice of the High Court of Malaya, chief judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak and 7 judges); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts
judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
Political parties and leadersNational Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN:
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN (MAH Siew Keong)
Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP (TEO Chee Kang)
Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA (LIOW Tiong Lai)
Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC (S. SUBRAMANIAM)
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS (Joseph KURUP)
Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS (Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan)
Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB (Adenan SATEM)
Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS (James MASING)
Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP (TIONG King Sing)
Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP (Dr. SIM Kui Hian)
United Malays National Organization or UMNO (NAJIB bin Abdul Razak)
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO (Wilfred Madius TANGAU)
People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP (M. Kayveas)

Coalition of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH:
Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP (TAN Kok Wai, Acting National Chairman)
National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or Amanah (Mohamad SABU)
People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR (WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail)
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia or PPBM (MAHATHIR Mohamad)

Other:
Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS (Abdul HADI Awang)
Sabah Heritage Party or WARISAN (Shafie APDAL)
Socialist Party of Malaysia (Parti Sosialis Malaysia) or PSM (Mohd Nasir HASHIM)
Political pressure groups and leadersBar Council
BERSIH (electoral reform coalition)
ISMA (Muslim NGO)
PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
International organization participationADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador AWANG ADEK Bin Hussin (since 21 May 2015)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 572-9700
FAX: (1) (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the USchief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 2 October 2013)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: (60) (3) 2168-5000
FAX: (60) (3) 2142-2207
Flag description14 equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a yellow crescent and a yellow 14-pointed star; the flag is often referred to as Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory); the 14 stripes stand for the equal status in the federation of the 13 member states and the federal government; the 14 points on the star represent the unity between these entities; the crescent is a traditional symbol of Islam; blue symbolizes the unity of the Malay people and yellow is the royal color of Malay rulers
note: the design is based on the flag of the US
National symbol(s)tiger, hibiscus; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
National anthemname: "Negaraku" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER

note: adopted 1957; full version only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie," was originally the anthem of Perak, one of Malaysia's 13 states