unbekannter Gast

Pakistan: Economy#

Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, and Pakistan's failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment was 6.6% in 2013, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis. Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging about $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan's current account turned to deficit in the following two years, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3.5% per year from 2008 to 2013. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.

Economic Facts#

GDP (purchasing power parity)$574.1 billion (2013 est.)
$554.2 billion (2012 est.)
$531 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - real growth rate3.6% (2013 est.)
4.4% (2012 est.)
3.7% (2011 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,100 (2013 est.)
$3,100 (2012 est.)
$3,000 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP - composition, by sector of originagriculture: 25.3%
industry: 21.6%
services: 53.1% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line22.3% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 39.3% (FY05/06)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 45.1%
industry: 20.7%
services: 34.2% (2010 est.)
Exports - commoditiestextiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partnersUS 13.6%, China 11.1%, UAE 8.5%, Afghanistan 7.8% (2012)
Agriculture - productscotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Budgetrevenues: $29.71 billion
expenditures: $47.97 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partnersChina 19.7%, Saudi Arabia 12.3%, UAE 12.1%, Kuwait 6.3% (2012)
Exchange ratesPakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -
100.4 (2013 est.)
93.3952 (2012 est.)
85.194 (2010 est.)
81.71 (2009)
70.64 (2008)
Exports$25.05 billion (2013 est.)
$24.71 billion (2012 est.)
Debt - external$52.43 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$54.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
Imports$39.27 billion (2013 est.)
$40.07 billion (2012 est.)
Industrial production growth rate3.5% (2013 est.)
Industriestextiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Inflation rate (consumer prices)7.7% (2013 est.)
9.7% (2012 est.)
Labor force59.21 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate6.6% (2013 est.)
6% (2012 est.)
note: substantial underemployment exists
Distribution of family income - Gini index30.6 (FY07/08)
41 (FY98/99)
Public debt54.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
52.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Current account balance-$2.36 billion (2013 est.)
-$2.072 billion (2012 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$11.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$13.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)$236.5 billion (2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$24.33 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$22.73 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$1.569 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.519 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA (31 December 2011)
$38.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Central bank discount rate12% (31 January 2012 est.)
14% (31 December 2010 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate11.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
12.41% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$106.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$94.65 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money$71.96 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$62.29 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money$93.11 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$82.63 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues12.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-7.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 81%
government consumption: 10.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.6%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 12.7%
imports of goods and services: -18.8%
(2013 est.)
Gross national saving12.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
13.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
12.9% of GDP (2011 est.)