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Papua New Guinea: People & Society#

Population6,791,317 (July 2016 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean
Ethnic groupsMelanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
LanguagesTok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 836 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); most languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers
note: Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understood; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%
ReligionsRoman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%), Baha'i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs and other 3.3% (2000 census)
Age structure0-14 years: 33.93% (male 1,173,034/female 1,131,387)
15-24 years: 19.86% (male 683,474/female 665,245)
25-54 years: 36.65% (male 1,281,641/female 1,207,658)
55-64 years: 5.39% (male 185,846/female 180,255)
65 years and over: 4.16% (male 143,851/female 138,926) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 67.1%
youth dependency ratio: 62.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 22.9 years
male: 23 years
female: 22.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate1.75% (2016 est.)
Birth rate24 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 13% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - populationPORT MORESBY (capital) 345,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate215 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 37.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 67.2 years
male: 65 years
female: 69.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate3.1 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate32.4% (2006/07)
Health expenditures4.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 32.8% of population
total: 40% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 67.2% of population
total: 60% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 56.4% of population
rural: 13.3% of population
total: 18.9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 43.6% of population
rural: 86.7% of population
total: 81.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.79% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS40,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths900 (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate25.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight27.9% (2011)
Education expendituresNA
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.2%
male: 65.6%
female: 62.8% (2015 est.)
People - notethe indigenous population of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the most heterogeneous in the world; PNG has several thousand separate communities, most with only a few hundred people; divided by language, customs, and tradition, some of these communities have engaged in low-scale tribal conflict with their neighbors for millennia; the advent of modern weapons and modern migrants into urban areas has greatly magnified the impact of this lawlessness