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Luxembourg: Government#

Country nameconventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duchee de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
etymology: from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"
Government typeconstitutional monarchy
CapitalLuxembourg Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz
Independence1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holidayNational Day (birthday of Grand Duke Henri) 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the festivities were shifted to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
Constitutionhistory: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868
amendments: adoption requires at least two-thirds vote by the Chamber of Deputies in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if voted for by more than one-quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2009 (2016)
Legal systemcivil law system
International law organization participationaccepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenshipcitizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Etienne SCHNEIDER (since 4 December 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
Legislative branchdescription: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies
elections: last held on 20 October 2013 (next to be held by June 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 33.7%, LSAP 20.3%, DP 18.3%, Green Party 10.1%, ADR 6.6%, The Left 4.9%, other 6.1%; seats by party - CSV 23, LSAP 13, DP 13, Green Party 6, ADR 3, The Left 2
Judicial branchhighest court(s): Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life
subordinate courts: district and local tribunals and courts
Political parties and leadersAlternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR (Jean SCHOOS)
Christian Social People's Party or CSV (Marc SPAUTZ)
Democratic Party or DP (Corinne CAHEN)
Green Party (Francoise FOLMER and Christian KMIOTEK)
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP (Claude HAAGEN)
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) (Central Committee)
other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leadersBusiness Federation Luxembourg or FEDIL (Nicolas BUCK, chairman)
Centrale Paysanne (Marc FISCH) (federation of agricultural producers)
Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) (Roland KUHN)
Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) (Carlo THELEN)
Chambre des Salaries or CSL (Jean-Claude REDING)
General Association of Officials (Confederation Generale de la Fonction Publique or CGFP (Romain WOLFF) (trade union representing civil service)
Greenpeace (Kumi NAIDOO)
LCGP (Patrick DURY) (center-right trade union)
Luxembourg Association of Bankers and Insurance Employees or ALEBA (Roberto SCOLATI)
Luxembourg Bankers Association or ABBL (Yves MAAS)
Mouvement Ecologique (Blanche WEBER) (environment protection)
OGB-L (Andre ROELTGEN) (center-left trade union)
International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the USchief of mission: Ambassador Sylvie LUCAS (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (1) (202) 265-4171 through 72
FAX: (1) (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the USUS chief of mission: Ambassador David MCKEAN (since 14 April 2016)
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: (352) 46-01-23
FAX: (352) 46-14-01
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
National symbol(s)lion; national colors: red, white, light blue
National anthemname: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg