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French Southern and Antarctic Lands: Geography#

Locationsoutheast and east of Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, some near Madagascar and others about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note - French Southern and Antarctic Lands include Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island in the southern Indian Ocean, along with the French-claimed sector of Antarctica, "Adelie Land"; the US does not recognize the French claim to "Adelie Land"
Geographic CoordinatesIle Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): 37 50 S, 77 32 E Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): 38 72 S, 77 53 E Iles Crozet: 46 25 S, 51 00 E Iles Kerguelen: 49 15 S, 69 35 E Bassas da India (Iles Eparses): 21 30 S, 39 50 E Europa Island (Iles Eparses): 22 20 S, 40 22 E Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses): 11 30 S, 47 20 E Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses): 17 03 S, 42 45 E Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): 15 52 S, 54 25 E
Area Ile Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): total - 55 sq km; land - 55 sq km; water - 0 sq km
Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): total - 7 sq km; land - 7 sq km; water - 0 sq km
Iles Crozet: total - 352 sq km; land - 352 sq km; water - 0 sq km
Iles Kerguelen: total - 7,215 sq km; land - 7,215 sq km; water - 0 sq km
Bassas da India (Iles Eparses): total - 80 sq km; land - 0.2 sq km; water - 79.8 sq km (lagoon)
Europa Island (Iles Eparses): total - 28 sq km; land - 28 sq km; water - 0 sq km
Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses): total - 5 sq km; land - 5 sq km; water - 0 sq km
Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses): total - 4.4 sq km; land - 4.4 sq km; water - 0 sq km
Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): total - 1 sq km; land - 1 sq km; water - 0 sq km
note:excludes "Adelie Land" claim of about 500,000 sq km in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Land boundaries0 km
CoastlineIle Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): 28 km Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): Iles Kerguelen: 2,800 km Bassas da India (Iles Eparses): 35.2 km Europa Island (Iles Eparses): 22.2 km Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses): 35.2 km Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses): 24.1 km Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): 3.7 km
Elevation Extremeshighest point: Mont de la Dives on Ile Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) 867 m; unnamed location on Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) 272 m; Pic Marion-Dufresne in Iles Crozet 1,090 m; Mont Ross in Iles Kerguelen 1,850 m; unnamed location on Bassas de India (Iles Eparses) 2.4 m; unnamed location on Europa Island (Iles Eparses) 24 m; unnamed location on Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses) 12 m; unnamed location on Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses) 10 m; unnamed location on Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses) 7 m
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m Indian Ocean
Highest Mountains
TerrainIle Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): a volcanic island with steep coastal cliffs; the center floor of the volcano is a large plateau Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): triangular in shape, the island is the top of a volcano, rocky with steep cliffs on the eastern side; has active thermal springs Iles Crozet: a large archipelago formed from the Crozet Plateau is divided into two groups of islands Iles Kerguelen: the interior of the large island of Ile Kerguelen is composed of rugged terrain of high mountains, hills, valleys, and plains with a number of peninsulas stretching off its coasts Bassas da India (Iles Eparses): atoll, awash at high tide; shallow (15 m) lagoon Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island: low, flat, and sandy Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): low, flat, sandy; likely volcanic seamount
Natural HazardsIle Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are inactive volcanoes; Iles Eparses subject to periodic cyclones; Bassas da India is a maritime hazard since it is under water for a period of three hours prior to and following the high tide and surrounded by reefs volcanism: Reunion Island - Piton de la Fournaise (elev. 2,632 m, ), which has erupted many times in recent years including 2010, is one of the world's most active volcanoes; although rare, eruptions outside the volcano's caldera could threaten nearby cities
Natural Resourcefish, crayfish note: Glorioso Islands and Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses) have guano, phosphates, and coconuts
Land UseIle Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) - 100% trees, grasses, ferns, and moss; Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) - 100% grass, ferns, and moss; Iles Crozet - 100% tossock grass, heath, and fern; Iles Kerguelen - 100% tossock grass and Kerguelen cabbage; Bassas da India (Iles Eparses) - 100% rock, coral reef, and sand; Europa Island (Iles Eparses) - 100% mangrove swamp and dry woodlands; Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses) - 100% lush vegetation and coconut palms; Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses) - 90% forest, 10% other; Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses) - 100% grasses and scattered brush (2011)
ClimateIle Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul: oceanic with persistent westerly winds and high humidity Iles Crozet: windy, cold, wet, and cloudy Iles Kerguelen: oceanic, cold, overcast, windy Iles Eparses: tropical
Irrigated Land0 sq km (2011)
Renewable Water Resources
Environment_CurrentIssuesintroduction of foreign species on Iles Crozet has caused severe damage to the original ecosystem; overfishing of Patagonian toothfish around Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen
Environment - international agreements
Geography-noteislands component is widely scattered across remote locations in the southern Indian Ocean<br /><i>Bassas da India (Iles Eparses): </i>the atoll is a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano<br /><i>Europa Island and Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses): </i>wildlife sanctuary for seabirds and sea turtles<br /><i>Glorioso Island (Iles Eparses): </i>the islands and rocks are surrounded by an extensive reef system<br /><i>Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): </i>climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones in the western Indian Ocean; wildlife sanctuary (seabirds, tortoises)