Ministry of Science, founded on July 24th , 1970 as Federal Ministry of Science and Research, 1996-1997 Federal Ministry of Science, Transport and the Arts, Federal Ministry of Science and Transport 1997-2000. In 2000 the Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture was created to accommodate the academic scientific issues which had formerly been handled by the Ministry of Science and matters of school education and culture which had been within the remit of the Ministry for Education (full name: Federal Ministry for Education and Cultural Affairs). Transport issues were taken over by the new Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology ( Ministry of Transport).

The Ministry of Science´s range of tasks included the coordination of federal research projects, issues of academic teaching and research, matters relating to universities and art universities and other scientific institutions and research facilities including the Austrian Academy of Sciences, pre-professional scientific training, professional training and continuing education, matters relating to scientific libraries, to documentation and information and further training, students´ interest groups, student grants and scholarships and promoting the construction of students´ halls of residence.

Twelve universities and six art universities were subordinate to the Ministry of Science. Other academic institutions responsible to the Ministry were: Fachhochschule colleges, the Studienbeihilfenbehoerde (Students´ Grants and Scholarship Authority), the Psychologische Studentenberatung counselling service for students, the Universitaetszentrum fuer Weiterbildung (University Centre of Post-Graduate Training), the Donau-Universitaet Krems, the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Geologische Bundesanstalt (Geological Survey), the Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik (Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics), the Bundesforschungs- und Pruefzentrum Arsenal (Arsenal Federal Research and Testing Institute), the Institut fuer Oesterreichische Geschichtsforschung (Institute of Austrian History Research) and the Oesterreichisches Archaeologisches Institut (Austrian Archaeological Institute).

From 1996 to 2000 the Ministry of Science was also given responsibility for transport policy and transport issues (railways, shipping, aviation, motor vehicle transport), the traffic police, commercial traffic of goods and persons, telecommunications authorities and matters relating to the Austrian Federal Railways. The Bundespruefanstalt fuer Kraftfahrzeuge (Federal Automobile Inspection Agency) in Vienna was also subordinate to the Ministry of Science.

Matters relating to the arts were taken over in 1995 (formerly within the purview of the Ministry of Education), and given to the Federal Chancellery in 1997.