b. Vienna, Jan. 5, 1873, d. Vienna, June 28, 1937, sociologist and socialist theorist, university professor in Vienna. Like O. Bauer developed the concept of Austro-Marxism. One of the leading members of the school of Neo-Kantianism that tried to link Marxist doctrines to Kantian theories. Drew up a code of socialist ethics in which he introduced the term "Neuer Mensch" ("new human being").
Works#Die Staatsauffassung des Marxismus, 1922; Kant und der Marxismus, 1925; Lehrbuch der materialistischen Geschichtsauffassung, 1930.