Bourgeoisie: Originally the term denoted house-owners resident in a town to whom citizenship was granted. In the 19th century the term was also extended to civil servants, teachers, entrepreneurs, bankers, and others, i.e. it referred to an economically defined class. A considerable part of the bourgeoisie held liberal views and the bourgeoisie also played a decisive part in the 1848 Revolution and the following developments. In the course of the Industrial Revolution the bourgeoisie gradually developed into the political and social antithesis of the socialist-oriented workers' movement. By the 20th century, the members of the bourgeoisie were considered as politically conservative or right-wing, culturally as the guardians of traditional values. Since the middle of the 20th century, petty bourgeois life-styles have spread to the former working class.
Literature#H. Stekl, P. Urbanitsch et al. (eds.), Buergertum in der Habsburgermonarchie, 2 vols., 1990-1992.